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HIgTORY OF THE 

CEMETERIES. 



AQP^L 
TCX^^ ^ 




OP 

DUBLIN 



atholic . . 



5 1 

.P&7- 

1900 



Cemeteries 



I*. MJ, 



WlfeMXM J. FIT^PATRICK 



Continued and. Editecl B^ j)^ ^ ori tmclep tge cli 
o| a SuB- Committee: erf ie Boapc 



Dublin 

PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICES, 4 RUTLAND SQUARE 

1900 




THE FOUNDER OF THE CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



NOTE. 



Reference is made in Chapter IV. to notes on Curran, and 
in Chapter V. to a letter from Leyne to O Connell, being in 
Appendix, both notes and letter have been omitted, however. 

The monument to Most Rev. Dr. Duggan, Bishop of Clon- 
fert (p. 210), was designed by W. H. Byrne, Archt., and 
sculptured by Edward O Shea, Kilkenny. 



The monument over Mr. James Spring s vault (p. 224} 
was executed by Hogan, Rome. 



pbotos. by 

W. LAWRENCE & SON, 

5, 6, & 7 Upper Sackville St., Dublin. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
PAGE i. 

Church Property passes into Protestant hands at the Reformation Archdeacon 
Blake not allowed to recite the Catholic Burial Service in St. Kevin s 
churchyard-^His Protest Sensation produced The Catholic Association 
formed O Connell on the hardship attending Roman Catholic Burial 
His Speech and Motion British Indignation roused by the London Press 
O Connell prepares a Legal Opinion, and shows that no statute law can 
prevent a Catholic Priest from praying for a deceased Catholic in a church 
yard Report of the Catholic Association Archbishop Murray s Caution 
Peel ridicules the Grievance as a grave subject Rev. J. F. L Estrange 
"Councillor Brie" petitions Parliament for Redress of the Burial Law 
He is shot in a Duel at Glasnevin. 

CHAPTER II. 

PAGE 12. 

Liberality of Bishop Jebb Lord Wellesley, Viceroy insulted by the Orange 
men Plunket and Brougham urge the " Easement of Burial" Sir John 
Newport, a kindly Protestant, assists in providing Roman Catholics with 
a Cemetery A permanent Committee to conduct its affairs formed Golden 
Bridge opened Catholic Emancipation conceded Dolphin s Barn chapel 
A sensational incident of Penal Days St. Joseph s Cemetery, Cork, 
opened Rev. Walter Blake Kirwan Schools of the Christian Brothers. 

CHAPTER III. 

PAGE 18. 

More ground needed Land acquired near Milltown An opposition organised 
Injunction issued by the Court of Chancery Heavy loss to the Catholic 
Cemetery Committee Purchase of Ground at Glasnevin Historic Memo 
ries The Turnpike Rev. Dr. Yore Richard Scott, O Connell s con 
ducting agent Edward Southwell Ruthven, M.P. 20 a year for a 
Protestant Chaplain to officiate when required in the New Cemetery Rev. 
W. Maturin Protestants buried at Prospect Asiatic cholera Great 
mortality The call for more ground again raised Base traffic in the dead 
successfully resisted Amount of money annually distributed by the Board 
for educational purposes Bully s Acre Startling details. 



VI. CONTENTS 

CHAPTER IV. 
PAGE 26. 

Burial of Curran s remains Letter from his son Valentine Lord Cloncurry 
Carew O Dwyer Henry Grattan Curran The Sarcophagus of Papworth 
Curran s bust by Moore Major Fitzgerald Fathers O Ferrall and 
Shine, SJ Sir Robert Peel and " Watty " Cox Captain Edward Whyte, 
R.N. Barbara Countess of Roscommon John Redmond Edward Dwyer. 

CHAPTER V. 
PAGE 35. 

Con Lyne Thomas Kennedy and the uninscribed tomb Major Talbot and 
the Earldom ot Shrewsbury Right Hon. Antony Malone The Board of 
the Catholic Cemeteries seek to purchase Mount Jerome Act of Parliament 
regulating the management of Golden Bridge and Glasnevin Cemeteries 
The Committee Mr. Macdonough, Q.C., M. P. Funeral of O Connell 
Letter from his Son The O Connell Monument at Glasnevin George 
Petrie, LL.D. 

CHAPTER VI. 
PAGE 44. 

Cosmopolitan features of the Cemetery Gentili and Petcherine Mr. (after 
wards Lord) O Hagan "Zozimus" Hugh Clinch Tom Steele Signor 
Albani Lady Charlotte Mahon The cholera of 1849 The Priests who 
fell An old Peninsular officer Captain Quill Commissary-General 
Goldrisk -James Clarence Mangan Rev. Charles Aylmer, S.J. Major 
Theobald Butler Con MacLoughlin James Charles Bacon Dr. Lee 
Dr. Breen Scott Molloy De Jean, the Poet "Anacreon in Dublin" 
Thomas Moore. 

CHAPTER VII. 

PAGE 65. 

Frederick William Conway Sir Simon Bradstreet, Bart. Maurice O Connell, 
M.P. A Duel The railway accident at Straftan John Keogh William 
Allingham Richard Barrett, of the Pilot Robert Holmes John Lube 
John Finlay, LL.D. Richard Coyne John Hogan, the Sculptor 
Major Nicholson Lady Mary Hodges Another railway accident 
Francis White, F.R. C.S.I. Terence Dolan Hon. Mrs. St. John Butler 
Lord Dunboyne John O Connell, M.P. Stephen Coppinger Pat 
Costello Bishop Blake William Forde Sir Edward McDonnell The 
Ball before the Battle Arthur Close, B.L. "Sursum Corda" Mrs. 
Palles. 



CONTENTS Vll. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
PAGE 77. 

A Tragedy Terence Bellew Mac Manus Lady Louisa Bond " Lord Cool- 
amber "The Royal Irish Academy John O Donovan, LL.D. Eugene 
O Curry Father Corr John Donegan Father Esmonde, S.J. Alex 
ander MacDonnell, F.R.C. S.I. Gallagher the Ventriloquist William 
Dillon Walker Sir Timothy O Brien, M. P. Patrick Somers, M.P. 
Palmerston James Fagan, M.P.--Very Rev. Dr. Yore " The Harmoni 
ous Blacksmith " Captain Leyne, R. M. Dr. Harkan Martin Burke 
Mathew O Conor Captain O Brien Christopher Moore, R.H.A. 
Surgeon Leonard Trant Christopher Copinger, Q. C. Patrick Vincent 
FitzPatrick John Fisher Murray Antony Richard Blake John Blake 
Dillon, M. P.- -Sir John Howley, Q.C. 

CHAPTER IX. 
PAGE 96. 

Hostile advance of Major Macbean and the Q2nd Highlanders on Golden Bridge 
General McMurdo South Dublin Union -General Sir T. Larcom 
The War Office demands that Golden Bridge Cemetery should surrender its 
rights General Lord Longford The Poor Law Commissioners Reports 
from Dr. Hill, Sir Charles Cameron, and Dr. Mapother Proclamation 
Abraham Brewster Order of thePrivy Council. 

CHAPTER X. 

PAGE 102. 

The Cholera of 1 867 William Dargan Visit of the Queen Rev. Sir 
Christopher Bellew, Bart. John Dalton The Bishop of Saldes Ralph 
Walsh Michael Murphy George Wyse Martin Crean Mathias O Kelly 
John Lanigan, M. P. -John Reynolds, M.P. Professor Barry The 
City Marshal Alderman Devitt, J.P. The O Connell Crypt A tribute to 
"The Liberator Imposing Demonstration in the Cemetery Anecdotes 
J. P. Organ Lady Sheil Sir Michael O Loghlen Michael Staunton 
Frank Sullivan Rev. Dr. Spratt John Keegan Casey ( Leo ) His 
Funeral followed by fifty thousand people Joseph Downey, Poet. 

CHAPTER XI. 

PAGE 121. 

Conspiracy against Glasnevin Cemetery Police Court Proceedings " Cursed 
be he who moves my bones "Arguments of Counsel Judgment of the 
Court. 



Vlll. CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XII. 

PAGE 127. 

Dr. Denis Phelan John Edward Pigot A Lord Mayor dies in office 
James Duffy Hon. Martin Ffrench John Bourke, F.R.I. A. Mr. Justice 
Keogh A touching scene Mr. Justice Lynch Patrick Joseph Murray 
Michael Merriman, B.L. Patrick Kennedy Sir James Murray, M.D. 
Lord Anglesey Philip Lawless W. J. Battersby Surgeon O Reilly 
Lord Gerard Wm. Justin O Driscoll and Daniel Maclise, R.A. Dickens 
Father Doran drowned Father Fay Laurence Waldron D.L. Sir 
John Gray, M.P. Dr. M Keever Rev. James Gaffney, M.R.I. A., killed 
The O Connell Centenary Matthew O Donnell, Q.C. David Fitz- 
Gerald, father and son. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

PAGE 140. 

Thomas Meagher, M. P. Renewal of Hostilities between the Military and the 
Cemetery The Local Government Board and the Cemetery Thomas 
Neilson Underwood, B. L. Thomas L. Stirling Colonel John O Mahony 
Professor B. Robertson Rev. Thaddeus O Malley. 

CHAPTER XIV. 
PAGE 146. 

Chief Justice Monahan Michael Angelo Hayes, R.H A. Edward Hayes, 
R. H. A. T.O Meara New Entrance and Mortuary Chapel built Morgan 
Darcy James Scully John Quinlan Surgeon Tyrrell, F.R. C.S.I. Sir 
Sir Dominic Corrigan, Bart., M.D. Dr. O Leary, M. P. Helena Norton 
Frank Morgan Wm. Rickard Burke, Inspector General, R. I.C. Vesey 
Daly Sheehan and the /I/azV Richard O Gorman Thomas Matthew Ray 
Dr. Robert Cryan, F.R. C.S.I. Rev. D. Laphen D.D. Mr. Sergeant 
Heron Dr. Thomas Willis Captain Morgan O Connell, A.D.C. Dr. 
Thomas Hayden, F.R.C.S.I. Edmund Jordan, Q.C. J. J. MacCarthy, 
R.H. A. Dr. John King Forest. 

CHAPTER XV. 

PAGE 161. 

Burial of Denis Florence MacCarthy His career Assassination of Thomas 
H. Burke, Under Secretary for Ireland Augustine Burke, R.H. A. Frank 
Thorpe Porter John Stewart Stevenson John Douglas Piercey " The 
Strollers Club " and Thomas Fagan John Cornelius O Callaghan 
General Andrew Brown, C.B. His Coffin borne on a Gun-carriage 
Robert Dwyer Joyce, M.D. Inspector-General Williams The Meade 
Monument Morgan O Connell, 



CONTENTS IX. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

PAGE 172. 

Peter Paul MacSvviney James Stannus Hughes, F.R, C.S.I. -Michael 
O Shaughnessy, Q.C. Alexander Martin Sullivan P. J. Smyth, M.P. 
Lord O Hagan Rev. D. W. Cahill, D.D. Cardinal MacCabe, Arch 
bishop of Dublin Patrick J. Blake, Q.C. Right Rev. Monsignor Farrell 
Professor Kavanagh Right Hon. Sir John Lentaigne James Burke, 
A. B. Martin Haverty, the Historian Joseph Haverty, the Artist 
Lady Kane, nee Kate Baily Dr. Daniel Brady, J. P. Win. Bannon John 
Nolan Lady Murray Professor Campbell Rev. P. Yorke, M.R.I. A. 
Leonard Morrogh. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

PAGE 184. 

Edmund Dwyer Gray, M.P. Wm. R. Dunbar, M.A. John Leopold Dunbar, 
B.A- Wm. Maunsell Hennessy, R.I. A. Lord FitzGerald Very Rev. 
Daniel Fogarty Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S. Sir John Bradstreet William 
Woodlock, Police Magistrate Mr. Justice O Hagan Thomas Ryan Rev. 
C. P. Meehan Dr. Stephen M, MacSwiney Very Rev. Thomas Canon 
Pope Sir William Carroll, M.D. Alderman Dennehy. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

PAGE 190. 

The O Gorman Mahon John Casey, F.R.S., LL.D., V.P.R.I. A. Professor 
Stewart, M.A. P. W. Nally Right Hon. Stephen Woulfe Flanagan A 
Survivor of the Cavalry Charge at Balaclava Dr. Peter Shannon Com 
missioner John George McCarthy Alderman Campbell Barry Sullivan 
Charles Stewart Parnell Lady Keenan Sir James Mackey " Judge 
Hunter "Rev. Brinsley Sheridan Rev. J. L. O Toole Sarah Atkinson 
Dr. Atkinson Arthur J. Mayne, R.H.A. Henry Loftus Robinson, 
R.H.A. Rev. James Healy Sir Patrick Keenan. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

PAGE 204. 

De Blaquiere Family Very Rev. Canon Daniel, P. P. Right Rev. Monsignor 
Kennedy, P.P., V.G. William J. Fitz Patrick, LL.D., F.R.S. Most Rev. 
Dr. Duggan, Bishop of Clonfert William McLaughlin, Q.C. Sir Patrick 
Maxwell Thomas F. O Connell Very Rev. Father Bennett, D.D., O.C.C. 
-John Hooper Hugh Tarpey Father Norton, S.J. Mrs. Delia Parnell 



CONTENTS 

Father Gaffney, S.J. Rev. Thomas Kelly, S.J. Sir John T. Gilbert 
Dr. Thomas FitzPatrick Edward Fottrell, J.P. Hon. Mrs. Vincent Corbett 
Dr. Michael A. Boyd William Hague, Architect, F.R.I. A. I. Leonard 
Sheil Dr. Thomas Nedley Very Rev. William Walsh, D.D., O.S.A. 
Dr. Joseph E. Kenny, M.D. Sir Thomas Farrell, President, R.H.A. 
James Spring Right Hon. Joseph M. Meade, P.C., LL. D. 



CHAPTER XX. 

PAGE 229. 

New Offices, 4 Rutland Square Purchasing and Enclosing of additional Ground 
to Glasnevin Cemeteiy Extent of the Cemetery Grants to Charitabel 
Educational Institutions Proposal to include the Cemetery, by Dublin 
Corporation in City Boundaries Extention Bill Action of the Irish Valua 
tion Department Imposition of heavy Taxation on the Cemetery. 



APPENDIX ... ... PAGE 237. 



PREFACE 



THIS handbook has been compiled from the archives of the 
Catholic Cemeteries Committee and other authentic sources. 

It was commenced by a member of the Committee, Mr. 
W. J. FitzPatrick, LL.D., and carried on by him up to his 
lamented decease in 1895. 

It has since been revised from the beginning, and brought 
down to the present year (1900), by a Sub-Committee of the 
Cemeteries Board, aided by Mr. Gerald P. FitzPatrick, son of 
the late Mr. W. J. FitzPatrick. 

BOARD ROOM, 

4, RUTLAND SQUARE, 
August, 1900. 




THE MALONE MONUMENT, CHAPEL CIRCLE, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 

(See page 37) 




HISTORY OF THE 
DUBLIN 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ivy-mantled walls of the ruined churches of Ireland, 
which form familiar and picturesque objects throughout the 
country, serve to fix the period when the old Catholic burial- 
grounds passed into Protestant hands. From the time of the 
Reformation, Roman Catholics possessed no cemeteries for 
their dead, and burials could alone take place in Protestant 
churchyards thus largely increasing the revenue of the par 
son, already rich in tithes, from a flock for whom he did not 
minister. Daniel O Connell, when examined on the state of 
Ireland, in 1825, mentioned that, to evade a rule which pro 
hibited the Catholic burial service in cemeteries under Protes 
tant control, it was not unusual to place a piece of clay in the 
coffin ere it left the house of mourning and there recite the 
prayers prescribed to be said at the grave. The churchyard 
most used by the Dublin Catholics in penal times was that of 
St. James s, and it is recorded by the Rev. James Whitelaw* 
that the Pope, on St. James s Day, offered up a Pontifical 
Mass in Rome for the repose of the Catholic dead buried in 
the graveyard just named. 

* " Essay on the Population of Dublin," by Rev. J. Whitelaw, M. R LA., 
Vicar of St. Catherine s : Dublin, 1805. 



HISTORY OF THE 



And for two hundred years Papists," r-ierr and poor, priest 
and peasant, continued to swelithe hill on the side of which 
the church of the minority raised its high head.* 

Another ancient churchyard to which deceased members of 
the proscribed faith were frequently conveyed was that of St. 
Kevin. Here Archbishop Dermot O Hurley, after having been 
tortured to death by order of the Privy Council (A.D. 1584), 
was consigned to rest, and throughout succeeding generations 
hundreds of his co-religionists ambitioned to-mmgte their clay 
with a martyr s dust. 

Among the tombs in St. Kevin s is a handsome monument 
dedicated to the Rev. Father John Austin, the distinguished 
Jesuit ; another was erected by the family of Thomas Moore, 
" the Bard of Erin/ and a stone of tabular shape, dated 1817, 
records that John Keogh, the leader of the Irish Catholics pre 
vious to O Connell, sleeps, "after life s fitful fever," beneath. 
In 1823, a series of slights which had latterly been offered 
to the Catholics reached its height when Archdeacon Blake, in 
St. Kevin s churchyard, was rudely interrupted while offering a 
prayer over the grave of Mr. Arthur D Arcy, a prominent 
citizen of Dublin, and brother of Mr. John D Arcy, D.L., 
afterwards Lord Mayor. He had been a very charitable and 
popular man, and his sudden death, by a fall from his horse, 
excited much sympathy. The muster at his funeral was natur 
ally large. Priests, wearing scarfs and hat-bands, walked in 
solemn procession up the lane by which the churchyard is 
reached from Kevin Street. On approaching the grave they 
gradually encircled it, so as to recite the " De Profundis " and 
other prayers usual on such occasions. All persons in attend 
ance stood uncovered, and the Rev. Michael Blake, Yicar- 
General, was about to speak when but he must be allowed 
to tell his own tale. 

" I did nothing," writes Dr. Blake, afterwards Bishop of 
Dromore; "nothing which any layman might not lawfully do- 
nothing which has not been done by Catholic clergymen and 
Catholic laymen under the administration of the most bigoted 
prelates, and during the most persecuting periods of former 
times. 

" Yielding to the request of a near and venerable relative 

* O Keefe, the dramatist, mentions in his " Recollections" (I. : 22 : 47) 
that on St James s Day the friends of those buried in this churchyard dressed 
the graves with flowers, chaplets, cut-paper ornaments, and pious sentiments 
in writing. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 3 

of the deceased, I took off my hat to assuage by a short con 
doling prayer the sorrows of the living to implore perpetual 
rest and peace for the departed soul ; and at this moment, and 
without any other provocation, an order of Dr. Magee, the 
Protestant Archbishop, was rung in my ear, that I must not 
offer any prayer over that grave ! Gracious heavens ! is there 
a country in the universe so degraded as Ireland?" 

Dr. Blake goes on to say that, to avoid any unseemly dis 
turbance which might arise out of indignation likely to be ex 
cited by this interference, he mentioned in a low voice to the 
few afflicted friends who were immediately at his side or before 
him, that he had been warned, on the authority of the Protes 
tant Archbishop, not to say any prayers there ; he recom 
mended, at the same time, that, as the Catholics present could 
not conform to their usual custom without appearing to resist 
authority, each one would offer his prayer for the deceased 
silently ; and he expressed a hope that their resignation under 
the unexpected additional trial would render their prayers 
more acceptable before God. 

Dr. Blake s immediate companions at the grave were tran 
quil lised by these words ; and his prudent line of conduct pre 
vented the large concourse who attended the funeral from 
knowing of the transaction until all danger resulting from 
excited feelings had passed away. The priests led the way, in 
the same order that they had entered, and in a few moments 
the sexton stood in solitary possession. 

A Protestant who was present addressed to the Freeman s 
Journal, of September loth, 1824, a letter of warm protest and 
sympathy. 

Thanks to Dr. Blake and his sympathisers, a deep impres 
sion \vas produced. It had long been believed that an Act of 
Parliament stood in the way of any reform of the grievance; 
but O Connell declared that he would "drive a coach-and-six" 
through it. His first move was to galvanise into vitality the 
Catholic Association, which, under the name of the Catholic 
Committee, had been suppressed some years before by Lord 
Whitworth, when Viceroy. The resuscitated body met in a 
room over the book shop of Mr. Coyne, of Capel Street a 
well-known Catholic publisher and the difficulty of obtaining 
a "quorum" of ten was on one occasion overcome by the 
"Agitator" running down to the shop and forcing two priests, 
then engaged in buying some theological books, and who, as 
clerics, were ex-officio members, to accompany him to the meeting. 



4 HISTORY OF THE 

Some trouble had arisen in St. James s churchyard as well 
as in St. Kevin s, and O Connell, on ist November, 1823, 
made reference to the circumstance. He was told, he said, 
that the minister claimed it as his "freehold"; but he had 
yet to learn whether that gentleman could plough it up, and 
sow turnips and other vegetables in it. Yet he doubted 
whether such an occupation would be as productive as sowing 
Papists, for the " freehold ; of St. James s, he was informed, 
produced to the minister nearly ^"2000 a year. He urged, 
in conclusion, that the only means by which the Catholics 
could get rid of such annoyance would be " to form an asso 
ciation for the purchase of ground, to serve as an asylum where 
their bones could be deposited, with the forms of Christian 
burial, without fear of insult, and where the Irish Catholics 
might enjoy the exercise of a religious ceremony of which they 
only, of the whole Christian world, were deprived." The 
Committee was formed, with O Connell himself as chairman. 

On loth November, 1823, O Connell dealt with the painful 
incident which had taken place during Mr. D Arcy s obsequies 
at St. Kevin s : 

" He had looked into the law authorities, and he was happy 
to inform the meeting that neither by the common, statute, 
nor ecclesiastical laws were there any obstacles opposed to 
their having a piece of ground where their remains might be 
deposited without the eternal recurrence of insult, to which 
they were at present subject. He did not wish to make it ex 
clusively Catholic ; for as the Catholics were desirous not to be 
separated in this life from their brethren of other persuasions, 
neither did they wish to be divided from them in their passage 
from this to another world. It was intended to be open to the 
deceased of every sect, where perfect freedom of religious rites 
might console the living, and, according to his creed, assist the 
dead. The knowledge that those rites would be obtained 
might render death itself less terrible to those who knew that 
even at the grave they are prevented by sectarian intolerance. 
The fact was very well known, and felt, that burial fees were 
excessively exorbitant. In the case of Mr. D Arcy, his friends 
paid ten pounds burial fees, for which, indeed, they had the 
privilege of seeing his remains insulted. The immense reve 
nues arising from that source of emolument the Catholics 
might divert from the pockets of their opponents. Those 
revenues might be applied to the liquidation of the necessary 
expenses in the first instance, and the surplus go to the formation 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 5 

of a fund for the support of Catholic and other charities 
a consideration which could not fail to be grateful to the bene 
volent mind, and soothe the agonies of a sick-bed. There was 
no legal obstacle to carrying their object into effect; there 
was nothing to prevent their having a burying-ground out of 
the precincts of a town. It was true, there was a statute pre 
venting the opening of a new burying-ground within the city, 
but that had no relation to particular religious sects. For very 
obvious reasons, it applied to objects of health, and no clergy 
man could complain of that diminution of his revenues. In 
the reign of King James I., a clergyman, in a parish in London, 
brought an action against the friends of a person who died in 
his parish, but was buried in another, when it was decided by 
the Ecclesiastical Court that the suit should not go on, and the 
Court of King s Bench granted a prohibition against the suit. 
He had reason to know that some very respectable and influ 
ential persons interested themselves in the present project, in 
order to prevent, as much as lay in their power, that constant 
irritation which it was the object of their enemies to create. 
One gentleman had waited upon him (Mr. O Connell), and 
had offered him the fee-simple of twenty acres of common near 
Clondalkin, and that there might be attached a chapel, where 
the dead in that burying-ground would be prayed for, and 
around the ground might be built a wall, and with the con 
stant watching of a sufficient number of persons, the remains of 
mortality would be secured from being disturbed ; and as the law 
gives the power they could find no difficulty in getting sixty or 
seventy persons to subscribe ^50 each, at the highest interest, 
for the purpose of enclosing the ground, building the chapel, 
etc. ; and that sum it will not be necessary to pay but by instal 
ments, and as they may be wanted, and the revenue of the 
ground could be handed over as a security. Even as a trading 
speculation, he conceived there would be no difficulty in ob 
taining a sufficient number of persons to undertake the specu 
lation, when, if it be true, that a single churchyard in Dublin 
produces 2000 a year, and paid by nine-tenths of the inhabi 
tants of Dublin, the establishment he conceived would have 
the effect of diminishing that revenue which was not at present 
employed as it ought to be, and a certainty of directing it to 
meritorious purposes. The origin of churchyard fees was not 
a little curious, when it was sought to exclude the Catholics 
from those privileges established by their ancestors. In Catho 
lic times, the Canon Law guarded against the payment of 



HISTORY OF THE 

churchyard fees, and they were considered an imposition ; but 
monasteries having churchyards attached to +hem, persons 
when dying, directed that they should be buried in them, and 
left money in order to have themselves prayed for. But at the 
"Reformation" the monasteries were abolished, and the fees 
were continued, and even Dr. Magee was content to receive 
those monastic dues, handed down by a so-called reformation, 
which leaves the taxes, yet takes the value." He concluded by 
moving the appointment of a committee of live to adopt meas 
ures for carrying into effect the establishment of a general 
burying-ground ; and a committee was appointed accordingly. 

In the course of the discussion a not uninteresting fact was 
mentioned, namely, the disapproval expressed by the Marquis 
Wellesley (then Lord Lieutenant) of Dr. Magee s order, and 
of the Viceroy s desire to alleviate Catholic grievances by a full 
and impartial administration of law and justice. These de 
clarations, coupled with the fact that he had married a Catholic 
wife, made Lord Wellesley most unpopular with the Orange 
men, who, for a long time, had had everything their own way 
in Dublin. He was publicly insulted, and received all but 
personal violence at their hands. Protracted law proceedings, 
consequent on the "Bottle-throwing Riot," are very familiar 
to students of the time. 

The impression created by the protest of the usually placid 
Dr. Blake soon extended to England. His letter was trans 
ferred to the columns of the Courier, an influential London 
print, and able leaders appeared in the Globe, the Traveller, and 
the Morning Post, urging that Roman Catholics and every de 
nomination of worshipping Christians should be allowed to 
perform that mode of ceremony over the remains of their 
departed friends which accorded best with the dictates of their 
conscience. 

The Viceroy s views, and the expression of enlightened 
Protestant opinion, proved most consolatory to the ruffled 
spirit which illiberal action had aroused. 

A case for the opinion of Daniel O Connell, as Counsel, 
was finally laid before him : and his reply is a document too 
important not to receive due record here. 

"There is no statute in law," he writes, "preventing a 
Catholic priest from praying for a deceased Catholic in a 
churchyard. The mistake on this subject originates in a mis 
apprehension (frequently a wilful one) of the statute of the 2ist 
and 22nd of the late King, cap. 24, sec. 8. But that section 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 7 

contains no prohibition. It is not, in itself, any enactment of 
a positive or affirmative nature. It operates merely by way of 
exception, and it simply deprives such Catholic priest as may 
officiate at a funeral in a church or churchyard of the benefits con 
ferred by that Act. Now, no Catholic priest does, at present, 
want the benefit of that Act at all. It is, in truth, now a dead 
letter, remaining, with much similar lumber, on the Statute 
Book, creating no rights, constituting no privations, useless in 
its enactments, nugatory in its exceptions. 

"The next question asked me is, whether the praying for 
the dead by a Catholic priest at a funeral or in a churchyard is 
prohibited by the common law? My answer is, that it is not. 
The Catholic religion had pre-existence in the common law ; 
it was adopted into the common law as part and parcel of 
that law. So the law continued until what is called the Refor 
mation, in the reign of Henry VIII. The Catholic religion 
being thus part and parcel of the common law, it follows 
necessarily that praying for the dead could not be prohibited, 
either at funerals, in churchyards, or elsewhere. On the con 
trary, it was at common law part of the duty of the priest, and 
he was bound to pray for the dead at funerals or in church 
yards. And it was reciprocally one of the rights of the King s 
subjects, at common law, to have prayers said for the dead by 
Catholic priests at funerals and in churchyards. Thus, such 
prayers not being prohibited, but, on the contrary, being en 
joined at common law, and there being no statute to forbid 
such praying, it follows, as a matter of course, that no Catholic 
priest can be legally prevented from praying for a deceased 
Catholic at a funeral or in a churchyard. 

" The next question turns upon the mode of redress, should 
a Catholic priest be prevented from thus officiating. As to that, 
I am of opinion, (but with some doubt), that an action would 
lie at the suit of the executors of the deceased against any 
person who prevented a Catholic priest from praying in the 
churchyard over the body of their testator. But, as I am un 
willing to advise litigation where it may be avoided, I think the 
best remedy would be founded in the peaceful, but determined, 
assertion of the right. Let the friends of the deceased peace 
ably surround the priest and the body during the service; let 
any violence which may arise come from the preventing parties, 
and then the individuals to whom that violence may be used 
will have a distinct right of action, or may proceed by indict 
ment against the persons who use force. In many counties 



HISTORY OF THE 



there may be the natural and usual apprehension that the 
magistrates, tinged (to speak moderately) with orange, may 
not do strict justice to the Catholics on an occasion of this sort ; 
in every such case the indictment, as soon as found, should be 
removed by certiorari into the King s Bench, where everybody 
is sure of meeting impartial justice. If grand juries, acting 
on a similar bad feeling, throw out the bills of indictment, the 
Court of King s Bench, upon making out, by affidavit, a proper 
case for that purpose, will grant a criminal information. 

1 Thus it will be found that there are abundant means for 
the Catholics to maintain this, their undoubted right. I am 
decidedly of opinion that it ought to be asserted. The Catho 
lics may as well at once abandon the tombs of their fathers 
and relatives, as submit to the petty and tyrannical bigotry 
which now seeks, unjustly and illegally, to deprive them, at 
moments of the greatest and most bitter sorrow, of the awful 
but melancholy consolations of their religion. 

" I therefore repeat my decided opinion, that the Catholics 
have a right to these prayers, and that such right should be 
exerted with determination, but peaceably, and without any 
illegal violence whatever. DANIEL O CONNELL." 

On November 17, 1823, the Committee of the Catholic 
Association, which had undertaken to prepare a report, duly 
presented that document. 

It so happened, and was incidentally mentioned, that on 
that day the funeral of a highly-distinguished priest, the Very 
Rev. Dr. Hamill, V.G., Dean of Dublin, had wended its way 
to the Protestant graveyard of St. James s, and that the priests 
who followed his remains, from a desire to avoid creating dis 
content amongst the vast multitude present, had not attempted 
to read the prayers in the churchyard, but did so while in the 
street. 

The report meanwhile went on to say : 
" Your committee have diligently attended to the duty com 
mitted to them. They have entered zealously into the views 
of the Association. They have felt it a pleasing duty to assist 
m calming the public mind, agitated by a species of persecu 
tion, novel in its nature, and afflicting in its application. They 
have been desirous to take away this new subject of irritation, 
which has been unhappily introduced in our times, as if the 
Catholics were not already sufficiently afflicted, and as if it 
were not deemed sufficient to oppress and degrade the living, 
without offering insult and outrage to the dead. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 9 

" We have been deeply anxious to obviate this new 
source of animosity and resentment. Our first wish has 
ever been to reconcile our countrymen of all denominations. 
We wish to live on terms of amity and affection with our 
brother Protestant fellow-countrymen. We earnestly desire 
to be united with them in our lives, and not to be separated 
from them in death. But there is a spirit abroad. Men, who 
call themselves ministers of the God of Charity, and who re 
ceive the good things of this world in abundance for making 
that profession, have clothed themselves in the garb of Dis 
cord, and have exercised ingenuity in order co discover a new 
method of outraging the feelings of a religious and faithful 
people. They have gone beyond the letter, or even the spirit 
of the Penal Code, and have found out another mode of per 
secution, which the laws of man cannot sanction, and the laws 
of charity must condemn. 

" Under these circumstances we have felt it our duty, as 
faithful subjects, anxious to maintain public peace and private 
tranquility, to devise means of avoiding these occasions of irri 
tation or insolence. The genius of bigotry has deprived us, in 
this our native land, of our fair and just share in the admini 
stration of municipal and public trusts. We have been, and 
are, unjustly deprived of our station as freemen, because of 
our adherence to the religion of our ancestors ; and now we 
are obliged to quit the tombs of these ancestors, and abandon 
the melancholy consolation of laying our bones with theirs, 
and relinquish all hope of ever resting in the same spot with 
them, because of our anxiety to preserve peace and avoid the 
occasions of ill-will, of hatred, and of strife. 

" Animated by these sentiments, your Committee has en 
tered upon the performance of its duties. It is enabled, with 
confidence, to state : 

" i st. That there are no legal obstacles to prevent the 
Catholics from acquiring two or more tracts of land in the 
vicinage of Dublin, for the purpose of converting them into 
burying-grounds. 

" 2nd. That there are no practical difficulties in the way 
of procuring sufficient quantities of land for this purpose. 

" Your committee next beg leave to recommend to the 
Association, either to continue the present committee, with 
augmented members, or to appoint a new and enlarged com 
mittee, in order to carry into practical effect the present project. 

" We take leave to suggest that the new committee should 



10 HISTORY OF THE 

be directed to solicit, in the most respectful manner, the co 
operation of His Grace the Archbishop, the Most Rev. Dr. 
Murray, and of the Catholic rectors of the several parishes in 
this city, and to arrange with those reverend personages the 
best mode of raising the necessary funds, and of appointing 
proper trustees, and of arranging all the details which will be 
found necessary to effectuate our purpose with expedition and 
security. 

" As we have reason to be convinced that the necessary 
funds can be easily procured, we deem it right to suggest that 
the committee should be authorised immediately to advertise for 
quantities of land, in parcels of not less than two and not more 
than three acres ; such parcels to be all situate within two miles 
in any direction of the Castle of Dublin. And this we respect 
fully submit as our report. DANIEL O CONNELL, 
" 15th November, 1823: Chairman. 

Archbishop Murray did not hesitate to act in accordance 
with O Connell s appeal. At a meeting of the Catholic clergy 
of Dublin, on 23rd April, 1824, he took the chair. After 
adverting to some passages in a letter signed " W. Dublin," 
which had been recently read in the House of Lords, a 
resolution went on to declare that at Mr. D Arcy s funeral 
nothing whatever was attempted different from the practice 
which had been followed under the episcopate of Dr. Magee s 
predecessor. " That, in every case in which we have been 
present at the interment of Catholics in Protestant church 
yards, within the city of Dublin, the invariable practice, 
until the late unfortunate interruption in St. Kevin s, was, that 
one of the clergy recited at the grave a form of prayer for the 
soul of the deceased; that the remaining clergy, if more than 
one were present, and sometimes the laity, joined in the re 
sponses to this prayer ; and that during the recital of it, both 
the Catholic clergy and laity remained with their heads un 
covered, in a way that would be likely to attract the notice of 
all present." 

These very moderate resolutions were thereupon signed by 
Dr. Murray, his Vicars-General, and fifty-two other clerics, 
supplemented by an expression of their readiness to attest the 
facts asserted in a court of justice, upon oath, if so required 
by any lawful authority. 

Richard Lalor Shiel afterwards British Minister at Flor 
ence belonged, with Woulfe, to the more moderate section of 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES II 

Catholic orators who had supported the veto. He declared, in 
reference to the foregoing resolutions, that they gave expression 
to all that could be said on the subject with a potency and 
strength, and withal, in language so dignified and temperate, 
that they furnished, not only to the Catholic body, but to the 
whole community, an admirable example of Christian toleration 
and forbearance, and exhibited those essentials to the character 
of a Christian teacher recommended in Scripture, " the wisdom 
of the serpent with the meekness of the dove," whilst those of 
their opponents were remarkable but for one of those qualifica 
tions. Neither the dove nor the serpent were compelled to supply 
one important essential. The organization for a reform of the 
burial law needed funds, and four men took the initiative by 
each subscribing 100. The hardship in question having been 
brought before Parliament, Mr. Peel sought, as it would seem, 
to beat the Agitator with his own weapons ; and with a levity 
hardly becoming in a man of his status, ridiculed the alleged 
grievance as " a grave subject." A Bill had been brought into 
Parliament dealing with burials ; but so weak and flabby that 
the bishops and clergy of the establishment set it at naught, 
and armed themselves with a disused statute which prescribed 
to " the parson" the duty of reading the Church service over 
the grave. The tone adopted by Peel and the determination 
of the Irish parsons to cling to what they conceived to be their 
rights disheartened not a few of those who had previously 
hoped for redress. The Rev. J. F. L Estrange opened a cor 
respondence with O Connell, who lost no time in re-assuring 
him : 

" MY DEAREST FRIEND, It is perfectly legal for any sect 
of Christians to have separate burial grounds. The Catholics 
have a kind of pre-eminent right to this privilege. At common 
law, when the Catholic religion was part and parcel of the Con 
stitution, they had undoubtedly this right. It has not been 
taken away by any statute whatsoever. There is a vulgar 
error which attributes this right to merely unenclosed church 
yards. They are equally legal, whether enclosed or not. It 
is advisable to have a chapel adjacent to each burial-ground, 
but it is not necessary. The legal right is not affected thereby ; 
but the vicinage of a church affords a more legitimate oppor 
tunity of celebrating the burial service with suitable solemnity 
and religion. Thus you will find no legal obstacle whatever to 
the plan of Catholic burial-grounds. Believe me, &c., 

" DANIEL O CONNELL." 



12 HISTORY OF THE 

There was no more energetic worker on behalf of Burial 
Reform than a young barrister named Brie. He drew up a 
petition to Parliament for the redress of the burial grievances 
and other hardships, and closed a promising career almost on 
the spot now covered by the graves of Glasnevin Cemetery. 
Challenged to a duel by a political opponent, both met in a 
field at Glasnevin, and Brie fell, mortally wounded, into the 
arms of Mr. (subsequently Sir John) Nugent, M.D., who, with 
others, had joined the combatants on the ground, in the grey 
dawn of a December morning. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON i yth May, 1824, O Connell censured, in characteristically 
caustic terms, the conduct of Archbishop Magee with respect 
to Catholic burials. He referred to a transaction which took 
place in 1818, at Cork, of which diocese Dr. Magee was then 
Dean ; noticed some recent cases of hardship as regards burials 
in Derry and Limerick, and referred to the example of the 
Rev. Sir Richard Lees, as proofs of the length to which blind 
prejudice will lead otherwise genial men. On the Bishop of 
Limerick, Dr. Jebb, he pronounced a high eulogium. 

Meanwhile, the Viceroy, Lord Wellesley, wrote a strong 
letter to the English Cabinet, urging that an Act for the ease 
ment of burials should be passed. Mr. Plunket, Mr. Brougham, 
Sir John Newport, Mr. Abercrombie, afterwards Speaker, spoke 
favourably to the point : while O Connell watchful of the in 
terests of Nonconformists urged their claims not less zealously 
than his own. Sir John Newport, of Waterford, had been a 
true friend to Ireland, but he lived to see these services for 
gotten. Lord Monteagle, in 1855, said: " In visiting Waterford 
the other day, I was unable to find even a tablet bearing the 
honoured name of Newport." Died 1843, aetat 87. 

The Bill was passed ; but it proved illusory in correcting 
the evil, or, at least, the hardship, which Dr. Blake had de 
plored. On turning over the dusty files of the newspapers of 
that day, this fact becomes clear. After the lapse of three 
years, O Connell is found stating, at the Catholic Associa 
tion, on Saturday, October the 27th, 1827: "There was no 
statute law respecting burials previous to that so ludicrously 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 13 

called the Easement of Burials Bill. Before, as it stood 
at common law, there existed no restriction whatever upon 
the right of interment there was no obstruction whatever 
to any prayers pronounced by any person over the deceased 
at the place of interment, and, above all, the Catholic 
clergy were not impeded in the performance of that sacred 
duty by the common law, for the Catholic religion, as we 
all know, once formed a part and parcel of the common 
iaw of the land. There existed, then, no statute law on the 
subject till the passing of the Easement of Burials Bill. I 
make the assertion advisedly and emphatically. At the time 
when that Bill was in its progress through Parliament, I pub 
lished a letter in the papers in which I challenged any lawyer 
to prove the existence of any previous law which destroyed the 
right enjoyed by the Catholic clergy, at common law, to offi 
ciate over the dead at the place of interment. That challenge 
was published in the Irish and English papers, and to this day 
it has never been answered for this simple reason, that no 
previous law ever existed on the subject. The Easement of 
Burials Bill, as it is facetiously denominated, originated with 
Lord Plunket. I consider Lord Plunket as one of the firmest 
and strongest supporters of the Established Church. By that 
Bill he conferred upon the Established clergy great and addi 
tional powers, and he increased their revenues to an enormous 
amount by the late Vestry Bill. In my conscience, then, I 
believe Lord Plunket to be the greatest support of the Estab 
lished Church in this country. If I were to select a man whom, 
in an emphatic and particular manner, I should denominate as 
the bulwark of the Irish Church Establishment, there is no 
name I would put above that of Lord Plunket." 

But it must be remembered that Lord Plunket, in speeches 
few and famous, favoured Catholic Emancipation, and the re 
mainder of O ConnelPs speech dealt with him in a different 
tone. This sequel is sufficiently curious to claim permanent 
record at our hands, and the reader will find it in the Appendix. 
Those who knew the close ties by which Plunket was attached 
to Archbishop Magee could not well expect him to take a course 
hostile to the policy of that eminent prelate. They had been 
born under the same roof in Enniskillen, for a time occupied 
the same cradle, were nurtured from the same breast, studied 
in the same school ; and afterwards, when each had attained 
the head of his respective profession, both lived in Stephen s 
Green, Dublin, in houses similarly situated to that in which 



14 KlST>RiL.pF THE 

they were born under one roof, but divided by a party wall.* 
A reform of the hardships attendant on burial formed but 
a small part of the work which O Connell mapped out tor the 
Catholic Association, and this received a check by the threatened 
suppression of that body, as foreshadowed by some ominous 
words in the King s Speech at the opening of Parliament in 
1825. But, although matters of more pressing import received 
prominent attention from the Association, the work in relation 
to burial was not relinquished. All agreed that a Catholic 
cemetery hzrd- -become a necessity. The ancient Romans wished 
that their tombs might rise near some great artery of human 
activity, and the Romans of a later time were much of the 
same mind. A committee which had been appointed to secure 
a site near the outskirts of Dublin held periodic sittings ; but 
for some time little came of their labour. Long after Catholics 
had become legally eligible to acquire landed property in fee, 
an indisposition was shown to accept any proposal emanating 
from that source. Several overtures for land had been made 
and failed, until at last, at the instance of Mathias O Kelly, a 
kindly Protestant took the matter in hand. The genial summer 
of 1828 bore fruit, in more ways than one, for the solace of those 
who had suffered long. A tract of land near Kilmainham, 
over-looking the Phoenix Park, close to the Richmond Bar 
racks, in the suburbs of Dublin, and situated on a rising 
ground, near the south side of the Liffey, was secured. At the 
meeting of the Catholic Association on the yth of June, 1828, 
a report was brought up and, on the motion of Patrick Costello, 
adopted, while Daniel O Connell took the modest part of second 
ing it : 

" In rendering an account of the duties imposed on them," 
it goes on to say, " your committee beg to inform the Associa 
tion that they have completed their labours by nominating His 
Grace the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin ; the Very Rev. Dr. 
Coleman, Y.G. and P.P. ; the Very Rev. Dean Lube, P.P. ; 
Daniel O Connell, Nicholas Mahon, and Christopher Fitzsimon, 
Esqrs., to be trustees for the burial-grounds, and have nomi 
nated Thomas Dwyer, John Reynolds, Michael Walsh, D. J. J. 
Magee, John Redmond, Marcus Hickey, Kean Smith, Lawrence 
Finn, M. J. O Kelly, Michael Spratt, James Moran, Timothy 

* See " Lile of Archbishop Magee, prefixed to " Sermons on The Atone 
ment," by Very Rev. Arthur Kenny, Dean of Achonry ; see also Will s 
" Illustrious Irishmen," Vol. 4, p. 373. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 15 

O Brien, and John Brown, Esqrs., as a permanent committee 
to conduct the affairs of the burial-grounds, with power to fill 
up any vacancies that may occur in their body, and also to 
make such regulations as they may deem most useful for the 
public interest. They have also appointed the Rev. F. J. 
L Estrange a member of the Community of St. Teresa, 
Clarendon Street secretary to the committee. . . . Your 
committee request that the Association will enable the aetmg- 
committee to carry into effect this truly national work by 
granting, as a loan, a sum of /~6oo, to pay the purchase-money 
of the above-named ground, for which they have agreed ; and, 
also, that the Finance Committee may be empowered to lend 
such other sums as may be necessary for the outfit of said 
burial-ground." 

The money was paid, and thus, by the acquisition of what 
is known as " Golden Bridge Cemetery," a great principle was 
at last vindicated and a long-desired purpose attained, namely, 
to procure a burial-ground wherein Catholics might have an 
opportunity of having the funeral rites of their Church duly 
solemnized without fear of disturbance, and where all religious 
denominations were free to inter their dead, and to perform 
whatever religious ceremonies they washed. 

The Catholics of Dublin, and even some Dissenters, mani 
fested an immediate sense of relief, and eagerly hailed the 
change. An old priest, in looking back on past times, used to 
say that, when attending funerals in Protestant churchyards, 
he could never forget the agonized feelings he experienced lest 
some cruel rebuff might suddenly come to silence the voice of 
prayer and scare him away. 

Somebody said that "If the Ark had been built by a 
committee, it would not have been finished yet." But better 
things can be told in this case. The works necessary for 
enclosing and laying out the new ground progressed. By 
the records of July, 1829, it appears that a further sum of 
^230 was received from the Catholic Association, and in 
August, the Rev. George Canavan, who had taken much 
interest in the good work, offered to advance funds for carrying 
to completion the walled enclosure and building a mortuary 
chapel, repayment to be made to him out of the fees. The 
latter structure, reached by a flight of granite steps and sup 
ported by pillars, somewhat resembles a classic temple. Beneath 
it, in a darkened chamber, there remained at night trusty sen 
tinels, attended by bloodhounds, whose duty it was to preserve 



l6 HISTORY OF THE 

the dead from sacrilegious disturbance, which, for anatomical 
purposes, had long been connived at elsewhere. 

Archbishop Murray delegated Father Canavan to bless the 
new ground at Golden Bridge, but this ceremony did not take 
place until the i5th October, 1829 six months after the Act 
of Catholic Emancipation had passed and the first burial 
within the enclosure was that of Father Whelan, who in penal 
days had had the pastoral charge of Dolphin s Barn, the near 
est chapel to Golden Bridge. His remains had been interred 
beneath the earthen floor of that chapel, and their exhumation 
awakened memories of the past. 

A number of other interments took place on the same day. 
Many funerals had been postponed until the gate of Golden 
Bridge was thrown open. Over it was inscribed the letters 
" D. O. M. " " Deo Optimo Maximo." Thenceforward 
funeral processions marched under the loop-holed ramparts of 
Richmond Barracks. Long after, as will be shewn, war was 
proclaimed against the cemetery by its military neighbours. 

The example set by Dublin was soon followed in the South. 
The people of Minister found relief in the sanctuary of St. 
Finbar. Father Theobald Mathew, who afterwards became 
famous as the Apostle of Temperance, obtained for the use of 
a cemetery the ornamental grounds which had been the Botanic 
Gardens of the Royal Cork Institution, and one of its most 
striking tombs at this day is that of the founder. 

Meanwhile, the new cemetery at Golden Bridge was fast 
becoming a reality. A Deed of Trust, dated March 29th, 1830, 
was prepared constituting the committee a body united to regu 
late the enterprise. Arrangements were made as to the mode 
of carrying out interments, also for the audit of accounts ; and 
with respect to all profits arising, it was arranged that, subject 
first to the repayment of the sums advanced, that they should 
be applied to the education of the people. The great scheme 
of national education had not as yet been introduced by Mr. 
Stanley, and early in the year 1831, a sum of 100 was allo 
cated to the completion of the schools of the Christian Brothers 
in North Richmond Street, popularly known as " O Connell s 
Schools." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




l8 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTER III. 

So great had been the demand for admission to Golden Bridge 
Cemetery as a last resting place, that O Connell suggested the 
necessity of providing against a contingency which the possible 
exhaustion of its capacity might create. The committee there 
upon looked for additional ground. Some was acquired near 
Milltown ; but an influential parson in that locality took an 
active part in obtaining signatures against the scheme. The 
costly machinery of the Court of Chancery was set in motion ; 
an injunction was granted on the grounds that neighbouring 
inhabitants objected, the acquired land was abandoned, and 
the committee lost heavily on the transaction. 

In July, 1831, the Burial Committee entered into negocia- 
tions for the purchase of ground at Glasnevin, adjoining the 
Botanic Gardens the former residence of the poet Tickell. 
On 29th September, 1831, the deed was executed by which a 
title since converted into a fee-farm grant was obtained of 
nine statute acres at Glasnevin. On this historic ground the 
gnarled trunks of a once picturesque avenue of elms which are 
found in the more distant part of the cemetery recently acquired, 
mark the site of the old road from Finglas to Clontarf. 

One of those unpopular obstructions known as turnpike 
gates stood on the Finglas road, and another on the road 
to old Glasnevin. It was represented to O Connell that the 
heavy tax imposed on carriages by the toll-keeper would retard 
the success of the new enterprise. He got rid of the difficulty 
by making a new road to the cemetery immediately between 
the two old thoroughfares, and distant a few yards from both 
turnpikes. 

This is the point where three roads now converge, opposite 
the male orphanage of St. Vincent de Paul. O Connell s 
successful ruse is said to have been the origin of a well-known 
remark attributed to him, that he would "drive a coach-and- 
six through an Act of Parliament." 

Archbishop Murray delegated to the Rev. William Yore, 
P.P. St. Paul s, and afterwards Vicar-General, the duty 
of blessing the ground at Glasnevin. This rite was duly per 
formed on 2ist February, 1832. Dr. Yore continued to take a 
deep interest in both cemeteries, and throughout subsequent 
years his name is frequently found in the records of the com 
mittee. He had already taken an active part in promoting 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES IQ 

Golden Bridge Cemetery. As chaplain to Kilmainham Gaol, 
where it had been his duty to prepare for death prisoners often 
convicted of mere larcenies he was a specially familiar and 
most respected figure in the locality. 

" Michael Carey, the first ever interred in this cemetery, 
22nd February, 1832," is inscribed on a tomb in Curran s 
Circle. Richard Scott,* solicitor, the able conducting agent 
for O Connell at the memorable Clare election of 1828, was 
buried on July 26th, 1835, aged 85 the election which, as 
Peel in his memoirs admits, proved the turning point of the 
Catholic question. But the first important public funeral 
which wended its way to these grounds was that of Edward 
Southwell Ruthven, a Protestant. His father held consider 
able preferments in the then Established Church. Edward 
Ruthven had sat in Parliament for Downpatrick so far back 
as 1806, and is described, in 1831, as a "man of sound judg 
ment, of talents, integrity, and intrepidity, and has been the 
constant friend of all liberal and good measures." t 

O Connell, when Member for Dublin, was fortunate in 
securing Ruthven as his colleague. Nearly connected with Sir 
Philip Crampton, a leading Conservative and man of European 
fame in the medical profession, the adhesion of Ruthven was 
cordially welcomed ; while the Tories, on the other hand, lost 
no time in presenting a petition against his return. Although 
the "Picture of Parliament " states that " he is listened to with 
much attention in the House, and speaks well," members seem 
to have listened with impatience to his speeches while his seat 
lay in jeopardy. This discourtesy usually assumed the form of 
persistent coughing, which led him one night to say, " I don t 
know that within this House I can offer any cure for the cough 
by which honourable members are affected, but outside I shall 
not have far to seek for a remedy." In the midst of these 
worries Ruthven died. Previous to this event, the Liberator, 
writing to Joseph Denis Mullen, a member of the Cemeteries 
Board, says (March loth, 1836), "Poor Ruthven is very, very 
ill. There cannot be a more honest man than Ruthven." As 
a tribute to Ruthven s memory, O Connell laid the foundation 
stone of a splendid monument at Glasnevin, which was raised 
by public subscription. Ruthven had royal licence to use 

* For a notice of Richard Scott see Sir Gavan Duffy s "Young Ireland," 
page 738. 

t " Picture of Parliament " ; London : Steill, Paternoster Row, p. 81. 



20 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 21 

supporters to his arms, as head of an old Scottish clan, and 
these come out well on his tomb. It records his eminent ser 
vices in the cause of national progress. 

On search being made in the Registry of Deeds Office, it 
appears that the grounds now forming Prospect cemetery, as 
well as those occupied by the Nuns of the Holy Faith, and 
previously in the occupation of Captain Lindsay, D.L., were 
lands once attached to the Priory of St. Mary s Abbey, Dublin. 
All the Church lands, as is well known, passed, at the Reforma 
tion, into Protestant hands, and it was in this way that Dr. 
Lindsay, Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, and afterwards 
Bishop of Kildare, acquired the old monastic lands of Glasnevin. 

For years the poor had suffered by the high scale of church 
yard fees frequently exacted. The new Cemeteries committee 
made an equitable arrangement that ground should be placed 
at the disposal of the poor, and their graves carefully prepared, 
at the rate of two shillings and sixpence per head ; and after 
the year 1846 this nominal charge was reduced to one shilling 
and sixpence. "The ground used in this class of interment," 
observes the late Mr. Macdonough, Q.C., M.P., "would pro 
duce a far higher price if sold at the ordinary rates for single 
graves, but the advantage to the distressed of burial at a low 
rate is very great ; it leads to speedy interments important to 
the poor themselves, and to the public, in a sanitary point of 
view. The ground so used in Glasnevin is in a high part of 
the cemetery, with a deep, dry soil." 

Nor did the governing body lose sight of a principle greatly 
cherished by O Connell, that all facilities should be afforded for 
the unrestricted exercise of religious rites by members of every 
creed. On the proposition of the Very Rev. William Yore, a 
Protestant Episcopalian chaplain received a yearly stipend to 
officiate at the burial service of all members of his Church. 
The Rev. W. Maturin, Rector of Grangegorman, discharged 
this duty until 1853. A surplice and Book of Common Prayer 
are kept on the premises at Glasnevin for the use of any Pro 
testant minister who may desire to read within the grounds the 
solemn burial service prescribed by his ritual. For a length 
ened period the number of Protestant interments averaged one 
in each week. Their graves are intermingled with those of the 
Catholics ; but a separate plot is provided to meet the desires 
of those who prefer to be interred apart. Of late years, 
however, Mount Jerome and Dean s Grange have left the 
sexton at Glasnevin but little to do in this respect. The 



22 HISTORY OF THE 

following are amongst some well-known Protestants who are 
buried at Glasnevin, and to most of whom a more detailed 
reference is due : John Philpot Curran, John Finlay, LL.D., 
Edward Southwell Ruthven, M.P., " Honest " Tom Steele, 
Frederick Wm. Conway, Richard Barrett, Sir John Gray, 
Thomas Neilson Underwood, B.L., Lady Murray, Robert 
Jefferson Hunter, A.B., William J. Dunbar, Robert Butt 
(son of Isaac Butt), Charles Stewart Parnell, M.P., Samuel 
Smyley, Loftus Plunkett, John Stuart Stevenson, and Captain 
William Law, Royal Artillery. A handsome monument, dated 
June 23rd, 1874, records that Captain John Griffin and his 
brother William Lysaght Griffin both sons of the Bishop of 
Limerick, and grandsons of "Pleasant Ned Lysaght," the 
poet are there entombed. Mr. Hepburne, father of Dr. 
Hepburne, F.R.C.S., surgeon to the Meath Hospital, expressed 
a strong wish to be buried at Glasnevin cemetery, and this 
desire was religiously carried out. He was the first of his 
family to be interred there ; and his sister, Mrs. Shepherd, has 
since become an occupant of the same tomb. Joshua Jacob 
(who afterwards became a Catholic) and Abigail Bail, who 
founded the sect of " White Quakers," and formed a colony in 
historic Newlands, not far from the white-robed Dominicans at 
Tallaght, chose a pretty plot at Glasnevin, and were finally 
consigned to rest in it. It may be added that Mr. Stoddart, for 
nearly quarter of a century the esteemed assistant editor of the 
Irish Times, has what is technically called "a family plot " here, 
surmounted by a handsome marble monument. Nor has it 
been unusual for Protestant clergymen to apply to the Cemeteries 
Board for evergreens to decorate their churches on festival days, 
and such requests have always been acceded to with as much 
readiness as though the boughs were needed for distribution 
in Catholic Churches on Palm Sunday. 

Asiatic cholera, which invaded Ireland for the first time in 
1832, laid thousands low. The whole fabric of society was 
shattered. A glimpse of the havoc made is seen by a visit to 
" Bully s Acre," Kilmainham, where tombstones abound with 
the date of 1832. It is recorded by Major Childers, in his 
" History of the Royal Hospital," that, within ten days, five 
hundred burials took place here at that time. But this state 
ment pales before that of Dalton, who declares that during the 
six months that the cholera raged in Dublin, 3,200 burials were 
made in "Bully s Acre."* It is not surprising that in July, 

* " History of the County Dublin 1838," p. 631, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 23 

1833, the committee of Prospect cemetery should have found 
it necessary to acquire additional ground. Ere long the cry for 
more again arose, and in 1836 the dimensions of the place were 
further extended. Three hundred and fifty-eight pounds had 
been given, as a fine, in 1831, besides a large rent, afterwards 
fined down by a payment of ^"1250. Further sums of ^"3000, 
^"773, and ^"3,450 were paid for acquiring lands in fee. Up to 
1878, the total number of interments amounted to 295,081 ; 
and more land becoming again necessary, it was secured by 
two large payments. The extent of land enclosed in 1892 was 
fifty-eight acres and thirty-six perches, and an elaborate system 
of arterial drainage was at once introduced at Glasnevin. 

The fact has long been notorious that at funerals of the 
lower orders in Ireland the use of alcoholic drinks had been 
freely indulged in, mainly with a view to deaden grief; but too 
often with results which cause pain still more poignant to every 
sensitive mind. The evils to be dreaded by the opening of 
public houses in the immediate vicinity of Prospect cemetery 
led the Board to oppose with vigour the granting of licences 
for the sale of drink, and it was a wise regulation of the com 
mittee to restrict the time for funerals to the earlier hours of 
the day. When they were not always successful in this effort, 
they bought up the ground on the opposite side of the road, 
and thus prevented the erection of houses from which intoxi 
cants might be supplied. A large fortune had been realized by 
the owner of a publichouse which soon after the cemetery had 
been opened was established at the old entrance-gate, and 
when, in 1878, the committee decided on closing this gate, and 
making the new entrance near Finglas, they were threatened 
by the owner with legal proceedings on the plea that she would 
lose a lucrative business by the change ! 

The land opposite the new entrance, which the committee 
deemed it wise to secure in 1873, embraced forty-nine acres, for 
which ^"9845 was paid, exclusive of legal expenses, to the late 
Captain Lindsay. The fields thus acquired are clearly marked 
on the map of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, as also subse 
quently acquired lands twenty-nine acres known as " Violet 
Hill," including one field described as the " Bloody Acre." 
This serves to fix the spot where the army of King Roderick 
O Conor lulled into a false security, and daily expecting a 
surrender from the starving Anglo-Norman garrison in Dublin 
was surprised and slaughtered by a sortie led by Strongbow. 

The lands sold by Captain Lindsay to the Cemetery were 



24 HISTORY OF THE 



known in the locality as the " Bishop s Fields," his father hav 
ing been Bishop of Kildare. It is somewhat of a coincidence 
that nearly all the landed proprietors from whom the Board of 
the Catholic Cemetery bought were Protestant divines. Several 
thousands were paid to the father of the Rev. Francis Carroll, 
A.M., and also some thousands to the Rev. Alexander Taylor^ 
while a heavy rent over i 30 annually was paid to the Rev! 
Thomas Long, A.M., rector of the historic parish of St. Michan s, 
and custodian of those wonderful vaults in which human remains, 
after several hundred years, are still undecayed. This annual 
rent is now extinguished by payment of the bulk sum of 
^"4,250: similarly, a head-rent of ^"14 2s. 8d., payable out of 
the same lands to the " Incorporated Society of Ireland for 
Promoting Protestant Schools," has been extinguished by a 
further payment of ^566 igs. od. When the liabilities incurred 
in the purchase of ground and the necessary works, were dis 
charged, the committee arranged, after the due management 
and care of the cemeteries had been provided for, to lay by 
yearly a sum out of the surplus revenue to liquidate ultimately 
the rents and like charges for which the land is liable ; and this 
wise policy now forms the provision in a bye-law, by which a 
proportion of the sums received for grants of plots sold in perpet 
uity during each year, shall be funded annually for payment 
extinguishment of rents, and to provide for the perpetual care 
and maintenance of the cemetery. The balance remaining in 
hands after meeting current expenditure, goes to charitable 
educational purposes. From the commencement of the labours 
of the committee, in 1831, down to the year 1899, the funds 
devoted to charitable purposes amount to nearly ^14,000. The 
following is an extract from the official record of the sums thus 
applied : 

s. d. 

For the first decade, dating from 1831 ... 632 o o 

In the next ten years, to 1850 ... 777 o o 

1860 ... 2096 o o 

1871 ... 4312 o o 

1880 ... 869 TO o 

> ?> 1890 ... 709 o o 

In the year 1891 ... ... 617 o o 

1892 ... ... 818 o o 

1893 ... ... 879 6 2 

^13^367 16 2 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 25 

Allusion has already been made to the fact that it had long 
been a practice with the medical profession to visit graveyards 
at night, in order to exhume bodies for anatomical dissection. 
Indeed, there was practically no other way, except by theft, to 
attain their scientific object. Frequent and, at times, sanguin 
ary collisions took place between the " Sack em ups " and the 
" Dead Watchers," in one of which the son of Dr. Kirby, Pre 
sident of the College of Surgeons, was shot dead. The rural 
graveyards of Kilgobbin, Killester, and Churchtown present to 
this day, in their battered tablets and tombstones, traces of the 
fusilades which once disturbed their solitude. The Freeman s 
Journal, of 1830, records a regular pitched battle in the old 
Protestant graveyard at Glasnevin. A hundred shots were 
interchanged, and it was only when a watcher rang out an 
alarm peal from the church tower that the besiegers decamped. 
The ground, it is added, was white with snow, on which "might 
be traced drops of blood." Some modern visitors to the 
cemetery seem puzzled by the five picturesque watch-towers 
which, crested and ivy-mantled, rise at different points of the 
boundary walls; but the wisdom of erecting them is now 
obvious. In some church-yards, traffic in corpses had been 
successfully carried on by bribing the sexton nicknamed the 
" Knave of Spades " and the Board of the cemetery prudently 
administered an oath to its employees enforcing hostility to a 
system which had added a new terror to death. "The dead 
experience the wrongs and not the rites of sepulchre," said a 
shrewd cynic ; " which is enough to make them rise from their 
graves ; and so they do, too often." It is matter of history 
that the body of Laurence Sterne was stolen and sold to Cam 
bridge University. As at Golden Bridge, firearms were now 
provided for trusty sentinels, and formidable Cuban blood 
hounds to bear them company. These precautions had become 
the more necessary because in 1832 " Bully s Acre" so long 
the happy hunting-ground for body-snatchers was closed by 
order of the Government. It was in " Bully s Acre" that an 
untoward calamity had befallen Peter Harkan, a well-known 
Dublin surgeon, and hitherto a very successful resurrectionist. 
A party of watchers having suddenly rushed forward, he suc 
ceeded in getting his assistants over the cemetery wall, but, 
when crossing himself, his legs were seized by the watchmen, 
while his pupils pulled against their opponents with such 
strength that he eventually died from the effects. 

This historic spot, which finally became the site of inglorious 



26 HISTORY OF THE 

struggles, claims a word or two before this chapter closes. " Bully s 
Acre " embraces nearly four English acres, and is famous for a 
gigantic headstone which marks the grave of Murrogh O Brien, who 
fell at the battle of Clontarf in 1014. In 1838 a fine sword of the 
nth century was found at the base of this monument. St. John s 
Well, and its alleged virtues, attracted crowds of rude visitors, who 
tramped in their thousands across " Bully s Acre." In 1755 General 
Dilkes became master of the Royal Hospital, and tried to stop the 
trespass by enclosing the cemetery with walls, levelling the graves, and 
"even burying the ancient monuments." The mob cried, " Down 
with the wall of Bully s Acre. " It fell before them like a house 
of cards, and the place once more became a common-land. Gene 
ral Dilkes s life was threatened : an attack upon the Hospital itself 
was made, headed by the Liberty Boys. They burst in the western 
gate, which the sentry had sought to close, and in the attempt he 
was seriously wounded. General Dilkes called together the more 
active of the pensioners, who, fully armed, marched down the 
Elm Walk. A battle between missiles and muskets continued for 
some time ; but the mob were opposed to men who were trained 
soldiers. The leaders of the rioters fell dead, many were wounded, 
and the Liberty Boys beat a retreat. It was deemed wise, however, 
to relinquish the design of enclosing " Bully s Acre." Here Emmet 
is said to have received sepulture. It may be mentioned that a 
portion of " Bully s Acre" was cut off in the construction of the 
Great Southern and Western Railway. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CURRAN fell with the leaves in October, 1817, and passed away 
in the bitter blasts which swept over the graveyard. " I fear you 
cough with more difficulty this morning," said the English 
doctor who saw him in his last illness. "That is strange," 
replied the dying man ; " for I have been practising all night." 
They laid him in Paddington cemetery, near London ; but his 
closing thoughts were given to the land he had served. " The 
last duties will be paid by that country on which they are de 
volved," he said ; " nor will it be for charity that a little earth 
will be given to my bones. Tenderly will chose duties be 
paid, as the debt of well-earned affection and of gratitude not 
ashamed of her tears." * 



* " Life of Curran " ; by his Son, vol. ii., p. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



27 
J 




4 



28 



HISTORY OF THE 



Twenty years had passed away, during which time he slept 
amid the roar of a great city his last wish not yet ful 
filled. The time had now come when the Mother Earth of 
Ireland fondly claimed her own. On December ist, 1834, his 
son and biographer, William Henry Curran, thus responded 
to the request made by the Committee of Glasnevin Ceme 
tery :- 

"At the period of my father s death, it was very much upon 
me that the duty and responsibility of disposing of his remains 
devolved. Upon that occasion I was not without a natural 
anxiety in reference to him, merely as a departed relative, that 
the land of his birth should be his final resting-place ; and I 
further was assured that this feeling could not be indulged to 
excess in respect of one who, having risen from amongst the 
people, and lived in dishonest times, had firmly and to the end 
resisted every temptation to turn upon those from whom he had 
sprung, thereby establishing for his memory in the hearts of 
his countrymen a strong and general wish amounting to a right 
that what remained of him should be among them. 

" But difficulties some of them legal ones, and needless 
now to be specified or disclosed intervened, and accordingly, 
acting at the time to the best of my judgment, but sorely against 
my feelings as son and countryman, I acquiesced in the arrange 
ment by which his remains were committed to their present 
place of deposit. I did so, however, under a persuasion that 
the deposit there would be only temporary ; and the particular 
place was selected with a view to the facility of removal when 
ever it might be demanded by his country. 7 

Contretemps once more came to delay the payment of a 
sacred debt. The late Andrew Carew O Dwyer, a charming 
gentleman and most persuasive orator, had long cherished the 
hope of seeing the remains of Curran restored to Ireland, 
and could not understand why any difficulty should arise in 
attaining this end. Some of the difficulties and delays are 
accounted for in the following graphic letter from O Dwyer to 
the late \Y. J. Fitz-Patrick : 

" Magnificent burial-places in which the dust of Protestants 
and Catholics might mingle, sanctified, too, by the ceremonials 
of the faith in which the followers of each religion had lived and 
died were established in the metropolis," writes O Dwyer ; 
" and with funds raised from the operations of this scheme the 
Cemetery Committee, amongst other honourable works, under 
took the pious duty of transferring the remains of Curran to 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



Ireland. This was attended with some difficulty and consider 
able expense. It was necessary to obtain a faculty from the 
Consistorial Court to warrant the proceeding. The body, how 
ever, being exhumed, and the necessary arrangements having 
been accomplished, under the direction of an eminent under 
taker, with the consent of the late Alderman Sir M. Wood, it 
was removed to his house in George Street, Westminster, where 
it lay for one night, I think, and was then transferred to Ire 
land, in charge of a worthy man deputed to superintend the 
arrangements ; and being on its arrival received by Mr. W. H. 
Curran and Mr. O Kelly, a zealous member of the committee, 
was deposited temporarily in the mausoleum at Lyons, the re 
sidence of Curran s intimate friend, Lord Cloncurry, and it was 
finally removed, attended by W. H. Curran, John Finlay, Con 
Lyne (who was one of the mourners at the funeral when it took 
place originally at Paddington), and myself, to a grave prepared 
for its reception at Glasnevin, where it now reposes. 

" There were some circumstances attendant on the removal 
of the remains from the mausoleum at Lyons to the cemetery 
which invested the proceedings with a melancholy interest. It 
was on a very gloomy day of November that the remains were 
removed with strict privacy to Dublin. Towards night, and as 
we arrived in the metropolis, the weather was marked with 
peculiar severity ; the rain fell in torrents, and a violent storm 
howled, whilst the darkness was relieved occasionally by vivid 
lightning, accompanied by peals of thunder. This added much 
to the solemnity of the scene as we passed slowly through the 
streets, from which the violence of the night had driven almost 
all persons. As we approached the cemetery, where groups of 
workmen, by the aid of torches, were engaged in making the 
necessary preparation for the deposit of the remains, the scene 
became most impressive and affecting ; and after a brief period 
of delay, during which all around stood with uncovered heads 
as the body of the great Irishman was lowered to its place of 
final repose, the scene was marked by every feature of a grand 
and impressive picture of devotion. A magnificent monument 
of granite, from the design of Papworth, on the model of the 
tomb of Scipio Barbatus, at Rome, with the simple and im 
pressive inscription of the name, Curran, is placed over the 
remains. The cost of this erection, as well as of a beautiful 
monument, with a medallion likeness in relief, in St. Patrick s 
Cathedral, Dublin, the work of the sculptor, Moore, was 
defrayed by a public subscription, to which John Finlay, 



30 HISTORY OF THE 

J. R. Corballis, and myself were trustees. The officers of the 
Cathedral of St. Patrick, who were entitled to certain fees on 
the erection of this monument, generously claimed to add the 
amount of these fees to the common object." 

The spectacle w r as, indeed, a grand one, recalling the burial 
of Addison by torchlight. It had been proposed that it should 
have been public, and performed amid all the pageantry of a 
national procession. To this, however, neither the good taste 
nor the good feeling of young Curran would assent. Thus, at 
length, at the end of many years, were verified the prophetic 
words of Curran, quoted at the beginning of this chapter. 

Shortly after the interment of Curran s remains at Glasnevin, 
his younger son, Henry Grattan Curran some of whose lyrics 
appear in the "Ballad Poetry of Ireland" was unanimously 
elected a member of the committee. By the minutes of their 
meeting on June 5th, 1837, it appears that his election was 
communicated in the following words : 

" The Committee, of which you are now a member, was 
the last legacy bequeathed in trust for the benefit of Ireland by 
the Catholic Association, and the wisdom of the policy which 
guided and occasioned the trust, as well as the fidelity with 
which the great design has been carried into effect, are best 
evinced by the monuments of the cemeteries, and the confi 
dence of the surviving friends of nearly thirty-four thousand 
persons whose honoured remains rest together without any reli 
gious or uncharitable distinction. 

"A series of insults to the dead, and of outrage to the feel 
ings of the living, have led to the institution of sanctuaries 
where all may repose in the hope of resurrection." 

Henry Grattan Curran, who afterwards became Resident 
Magistrate at Parsonstown, was, of course, a Protestant. He 
replied : 

" Forcibly and justly have you characterised the institution 
in the conduct of which I am thus called to share, and of which 
I find it difficult to say whether it should be esteemed more 
valuable as an evidence of the liberal feelings with which it is 
governed, or, as a memorial of those feelings, proud, pious, and 
patriotic, out of which it grew. 

" Looking at the beautiful and invaluable depository pro 
vided for those relics, which it is human instinct to revere, 
while I wonder at the bigotry by which that instinct could have 
been outraged, I cannot but admire the dispensation by which 
even bigotry has been made instrumental to shedding around 
the unforgotten dead the rapture of repose. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 31 

" I accept with gratitude the trust of watching over the in 
terests of an institution so admirable." 

Curran s sarcophagus, which rises to a height of 8 ft. 2 in., 
is composed of fine Irish granite, each block weighing from four 
to five tons. It is carefully modelled after the original, which 
visitors to Rome will find opposite the Baths of Caracalla and 
near the Sebastian Gate. The character of the design is in 
sound keeping with the classic style of Curran s eloquence. 
His speech, tor instance, delivered on the trial of Hamilton 
Rowan has been compared to Cicero s defence of Milo. The 
idea and design had been already adopted, though less happily, 
over the grave of Napoleon at St. Helena. 

The sum of ^"300 had been set apart for Curran s tomb in 
Glasnevin, and it was decided that the residue of the amount 
subscribed should go to a supplemental fund for the erection of 
a monument within the city. The Protestant Cathedral of St. 
Patrick was finally chosen for its reception. Here a fine bust 
of Curran, from the chisel of Christopher Moore, rests on a sar 
cophagus. A few anecdotes of Curran, while serving to temper 
the solemnity of this record, will, it is hoped, enhance the interest 
felt by those who visit his grave.* 

Some old friends of Curran were soon laid beside his bones. 
"Love is strong as Death " sings the "Song of Solomon." 
The body of Major Fitzgerald was the first to arrive. " Under 
neath and near to the tomb of his friend Curran," records his 
epitaph, "repose the ashes of Major Fitzgerald, of Clonborris, 
who died October 21, 1838, aged 72 years. He was not less 
eminent for his courage and humanity as a soldier than illus 
trious by his descent from the Fitzgeralds, the ancient barons 
of Brownsford, in the County of Kilkenny, and of whom he 
was the last representative in the male line. During a period 
of blood and devastation in this country he was charged with 
an important and delicate commission, which he fulfilled with 
consummate judgment, entitling him to the confidence of the 
Government and the gratitude of the people, of whom he was 
a gallant protector." 

The second visit of the cholera to Dublin, in 1834, carried 
off, after a few hours illness, Father John Shine, and, four days 
later, Father Robert O Ferrall, in his thirtieth year. The latter 
was brother to the Right Hon. Richard More O Ferrall, Lord 
of the Treasury in Lord Melbourne s administration, and who, 

* See " Anecdotes of Curran " in Appendix. 



32 HISTORY OF THE 

in 1850, resigned the Governorship of Malta as a protest against 
Lord John Russell s Papal Aggression Bill. Father Shine was, 
perhaps, after Father James Butler, the most efficient of the 
first Clongowes professors, and had for five years taken charge 
of the day-school into which the Hardwicke Street Chapel had 
been transformed after the opening of St. Francis Xavier s, Gar 
diner Street. When ministering to a cholera patient he caught 
the fatal malady, which, in its saddening and fatal ending, re 
called the worst features of the plague of Egypt as described in 
"Exodus." So great was the dread of contagion that Father 
Shine was buried by torchlight in Glasnevin during the night 
which followed his death. 

Even the resident officials at Glasnevin cemetery had no 
idea until the fact was found recorded in an early register, 
that an unmarked grave, shaded by the foliage of the Botanic 
Gardens, covers the remains of a man who disturbed the 
repose of successive governments and cut no small figure 
in Irish history. Editor of the Union Stay in 1798, active in 
the rebel ranks, Walter Cox was deep in the confidence of 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald and Arthur O Connor. But it is that 
marvellous medley popularly known as " Watty Cox s Maga 
zine" * with which his name is destined to remain long identified. 
This serial ran from 1807 to 1816. For libelling the Irish 
Government he was repeatedly prosecuted, and on one occasion 
pilloried. John Pollock, Clerk of the Crown, addressing Sir 
A. Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington, in 1809, writes: 
" Believe me that no sum of money at all within reason would 
be misapplied in rivetting him to the Government. I have 
spoken of this man before to Sir Edward Littlehales and to Sir 
Charles Saxton. He is the most able, and, if not secured, by 
far the most formidable man that I know of in Ireland."! The 
Correspondence of the Right Hon. Johi. Wilson Croker contains 
an interesting letter from Peel, who was Chief Secretary for Ire 
land from 1813 to 1818. Seven years after the date of Pollock s 
letter, Peel sends to Croker Cox s magazine for denunciation in 
the Quarterly Review. " Cox s object," he says, "was to ferment a 
bitter hatred against England." He adds: "It was quite im 
possible to subdue Cox by any power which the law gave us. 
The two last volumes the worst of the set were written when 

* Its title is " Irish Magazine and Monthly Asylum for Neglected Bio 
graphy." 

t " Civil Correspondence and Memoranda of F-M., Arthur, Duke of 
Wellington," edited by his son, p. 535. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 33 

he was in Newgate for publishing a seditious libel. . . . He 
remained in prison a year-and-a-half after the term of his con 
finement rather than pay a fine of ^"300, which, I think, such a 
popular character might easily have raised." 

It appears that Walter Cox* was buried on January 19, 1837. 
Most old graves at Glasnevin contain several bodies but Cox, 
" like a warrior taking his rest," is left all " alone in his glory." 
Dr. Madden gives Cox s age as 67 ; Alfred Webb, 66. His 
age, as recorded in the Cemetery Register, is set down as 84 ! 

Captain Edward Whyte, R.N., whose career was marked 
by some interesting circumstances, died on September igth, 
1837, aged 52. His family one of ancient lineage had given 
to the King s service eight brothers, of whom six fell in battle. 
In January, 1796, Edward* Whyte entered the Navy; in 1804, 
he attained the rank of lieutenant. He was present at Trafalgar 
when Nelson defeated the combined fleets of France and Spain. 
The remains of Captain Whyte rest in the Garden Section of 
the Cemetery, beneath a suitable monument, and a memorial 
brass may be seen in the mortuary chapel. 

The funeral, on October lyth, 1838, of Barbara Dillon, 
Countess of Roscommon, was in many respects an interesting 
incident. Patrick, the eleventh lord, had but one child, Lady 
Maria Dillon. This daughter of "a long line of earls" never 
married, and some years later was buried in the cemetery. 
The peerage of Roscommon is now extinct. 

John Redmond, a member of the old Catholic Association, 
was arrested with O Connell, in 1831, for having taken the 
chair at a Repeal meeting in contravention of a proclamation 
issued by the Viceroy, Lord Anglesey.! He was an active 
worker on the Board of Glasnevin Cemetery, and was buried 
in it i gth November, 1840, aged 63. 

One of the "Old Guard" as O Connell loved to call his 
colleagues in the struggle for civil and religious liberty 
Edward Dwyer, was buried at Glasnevin on 23rd October, 
1839, aged 70. He had acted as secretary to the Catholic 
Association, and on the gth July, 1832, became a member of 
the Cemeteries Committee. In the preceding year he was 
prosecuted by the Crown for complicity in the Repeal agitation. 

* For further particulars of Cox see Lecky s " History of England," Vol. 
VII., pp. 336-7. The author of " Irish Humourists " describes Cox as one of 
the most peculiar individuals to be met with in Irish history, and expresses a 
hope that some day the documents relating to him possessed by Dr. Madden, 
and other manuscripts that must be somewhere in existence, will be published, 
and a full biography given to the world of so striking a personality. 

t O Keefe s " Life of O Connell," Vol. II., p. 540. D 



34 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 35 

CHAPTER V. 

CON LYNE, who had taken an active part in the final interment 
of Curran s remains and enjoyed life with a zest but slightly 
shared by his illustrious friend, did not live to see the classic 
tomb which now marks the historic spot. From the records 
of the cemetery it appears that Cornelius Lyne died at Hume 
Street on the 8th March, 1841, aged 66. "Will somebody 
give us an account of the sayings and doings of this Prince of 
Gastronomes?" wrote the editor of the University Magazine; 
but its contributors made no sign. Readers of that pleasant 
olla podvida of contemporary gossip, Tom Moore s Journals, will 
remember frequent allusions to Con Lyne. His purple face 
and apoplectic throat, almost choked in a stiff, white cravat, 
were familiar objects fifty years ago ; and when a wag asked 
him if he were Con of the Hundred Battles, he is said to have 
replied " I am Con of the Hundred Bottles." He was a 
noted bon vivant, and a favourite at the mess of the Munster 
Bar a body which, at last, addressed him as " Father" and 
when he took the presidential chair at the head of the table, it 
was unwarrantably whispered that he was " Con-Seated." 
Once, when the subject of epitaphs was debated, he said, re 
garding his own, that he would be satisfied with "Contentus in 
Tumulo" on which Dr. Leyne, a cousin of O Connell s, aptly 
quoted as still better " Savcophago Contentus"* 

Thomas Kennedy, B.L., undeterred by the fact that the 
path of Irish periodic literature was strewn with skeletons, 
started, in 1832, the Irish Monthly Magazine, which for a 
lengthened period pursued its course boldly, and attained so 
high a rank that Dr. Madden and John Cornelius O Callaghan, 
in their historic works, rely on it as an authority and cull its 
beauties. f He entered on the enterprise with eyes open. The 
first and second numbers of his serial furnish a detailed account 
of all the Irish magazines that rose and fell since the Union. 
A love of books had always characterised his family. His 
great-grandfather was Minister from Holland to the Court of 
Queen Anne, who gave him emblazoned with her royal arms 
rare folios, still preserved by the family. Kennedy was an 
archaeologist, but regardless of the fact that over the gate of 

* lide Appendix for one of his letters to Daniel O Connell. 

t See " Lives and Times of United Irishmen," Vol. III., pp. 475-6, &c. 
Vide also the "Green Book," by J. C. O Callaghan, pp. 35, 248-9, and 
Gilbert s " Streets of Dublin," in the Irish Qiiarterly Review. 



3 HISTORY OF THE 

Gal way is inscribed " From the ferocious O Flaherties, good 
Lord deliver us," he married a lady of that feudal sept, who 
died young. Kennedy himself followed on June i5th, 1842. 
Death had no terrors for that vigorous, thoughtful mind. He 
had always a liking for churchyards : and some lines of his on 
the uninscribed tomb of Emmet have often been quoted. 

THE UNINSCRIBED TOMB. 
" Let my tomb remain uninscribed, and my memory in oblivion, until other 

times, and other men, can do justice to my character. 
" Pray tell me," I said, to an old man who stray d. 
Drooping over the graves which his own hands had made ; 
" Pray tel) me the name of the tenant who sleeps 
Neath yonder lone shade where the sad willow weeps : 
Every stone is engraved with the name of the dead, 
But yon blank slab declares not whose spirit is fled ?" 

In silence he bowed, and then beckoned me nigh, 
Till we stood o er the grave then he said with a sigh : 
" Yes, they dare not to trace e en a word on this stone 
To the memory of him who sleeps coldly and lone ; 
He told them, commanded, the lines o er his grave 
Should never be traced by the hands of a slave ! 

" He bade them to shade e en his name in the gloom, 
Till the morning of freedom should shine on his tomb. 
When the flag of my country at liberty flies, 
Then, then, let my name and my monument rise. 
You see they obey d him tis twenty-eight years, 
And they come still to moisten his grave with their tears. 

" He was young, like yourself, and aspired to o erthrow 

The tyrants who filled his loved island with woe : 

They crushed his bold spirit for this earth was confined, 

Too scant, for the range of his luminous mind." 

He paused, and the old man went slowly away, 

And I felt, as he left me, an impulse to pray. 

" Grant Heaven I may see, e er my own days are done 

A monument rise o er my country s lost son ! 

And oh ! proudest task, be it mine to indite 

The long- delayed tribute a freeman must write ; 

Till then shall its theme in my heart deeply dwell, 

So peace to thy slumbers, dear shade fare-thee-well. " 

In the same grave with Thomas Kennedy rests his sister 
Charlotte, and her husband, Major Talbot, who, in well-known 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 37 

proceedings before the House of Lords, very nearly established 
his claim to the Earldom of Shrewsbury ; but a powerful 
competitor appeared in Lord Ingestre, and Talbot s means 
were inadequate to maintain the contest to the end. He was 
the cousin of the Princess Borghese, whose life has been 
written in French by Zeloni. 

" Malone," declared Grattan, " was a man of the finest 
intellect any country ever produced. The three ablest men I 
have ever heard were Mr. Pitt (the elder), Mr. Murray, and 
Mr. Malone. For a popular assembly I would choose Pitt ; 
for a Privy Council, Murray ; for twelve wise men, Malone." 
The Right Hon. Antony Malone had been Prime Sergeant 
and afterwards Chancellor of the Exchequer in Ireland ; whom 
it had been proposed to transfer from the Irish to the English 
House of Commons in order to oppose Sir Robert Walpole. 
Malone s nephew was created Lord Sunderlin. A conspicuous 
monument decorated with the arms of the latter peerage, 
arrests attention in the Chapel Circle. It bears date Novem 
ber 4th, 1846, and was raised by the representatives of Antony 
Malone and Lord Sunderlin. Edward Malone, the Shak- 
spearian commentator, is also mentioned on the stone. 

It occurred to the governing body that a cemetery on the 
south-east side of Dublin would prove a convenience to the 
Catholic residents of that quarter, and it may excite surprise 
to hear that the Board had been actually in treaty for the pur 
chase of Mount Jerome. Delays and difficulties intervened 
until Mr. Johnson who was the authorised promoter of a new 
cemetery for Protestant burials closed with the vendors and 
became its first secretary. 

It was not until August, 1846, that Parliamentary powers 
were obtained regulating the management of both the ceme 
teries with which this volume deals. The Act provides for 
"the maintenance of the cemeteries at Golden Bridge and 
Prospect, in the county of Dublin, and to create a perpetual 
succession in the governing body or committee for managing 
the same."* 

Fifty-four enactments follow, one of which (the 27th) pro 
vides " That it shall be lawful for any clergyman duly licensed 
or appointed according to the rules or form of the religion to 
which such clergyman may belong, at the request, in writing, 
of the executor of any deceased person, or of any other person 

* 9 & 10 Vic., cap. ccclxi. 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 39 

having the charge of the interment of any deceased person, to 
perform the burial service of the said religion in any such 
burial-ground." And the then committee constituted for the 
government of " said burying-grounds " are described as His 
Grace the Most Reverend Daniel Murray, Archbishop ; the 
Right Reverend Michael Blake, Bishop ; the Very Reverend 
William Yore, Clerk ; Daniel O Connell, Esq., M.P., and 
Christopher Fitzsimon, Esq., trustees; George Atkinson, 
M.D. ; Stephen Coppinger, B.L. ; Patrick Costello, Esq. ; 
Henry Grattan Curran, B.L. ; Terence Dolan, gentleman ; 
James Fagan, M.P. ; Fergus Farrell, J.P. ; William Ford, 
gentleman; Charles Gavin, alderman; John Keshan, alder 
man; Joseph Denis Mullen, Esq.; Denis Moylan, D.L. ; 
Timothy O Brien, alderman and M.P. ; Patrick M Owen, 
Richard O Gorman, John Reynolds, Michael Walsh, and 
James Egan, Esquires. 

Thirty years after his earlier colleagues had passed away, 
Dr. Atkinson remained the sole survivor a man of great 
energy and decision of character, who, between the ages of 
eighty and ninety, was one of the most zealous workers on the 
Board. Under powers created by the Act bye-laws for the 
management and maintenance of the cemeteries were framed. 
An abstract of these will be found in the Appendix. 

Later on some new names are found David Fitzgerald, 
brother of Lord Fitzgerald ; Sir Edward M Donnell, Maurice 
O Connell, M.P.; John O Connell, M.P.; Sir Patrick O Brien, 
Bart.; Sir Dominick Corrigan, Bart., M.D. ; Sir John Brad- 
street, Bart.; Mr. Sergeant Heron, Sir Richard Martin, Bart., 
D.L. ; Laurence Waldron, D.L. ; Mark O Shaughnessy, 
LL.D.*, &c. 

It may be worthy of note that in no part of the Act are 
they styled " Catholic cemeteries." It distinctly enacts in its 
first clause that the Board is to be known and addressed " by 
the name and style of the Dublin Cemeteries Committee" 1 
the word Dublin italicised. This is as it ought to be. Many 
persons erroneously regard Glasnevin Cemetery as an exclu 
sively Catholic institution ; an assumption hardly warranted 
after the facts already mentioned. 

* Mark O Shaughnessy, LL.D., was secretary to the Statistical Society, 
and finally became Professor of Law in the Queen s College, Cork. His 
archivistic research and literary handiwork in the latter capacity were much 
appreciated by his colleagues. He wrote a book on Chancery practice, and 
was well regarded by his brethren at the Bar 



40 HISTORY OF THE 

Great care is exercised by the Board in seeing to the 
accuracy of inscriptions, and that the facts and dates are 
in strict accordance with the records. Mr. MacDonough, 
Q.C., the eloquent Member for Sligo, when addressing, on 
January, 24, 1870, the late Chief Magistrate, J. W. O Donnell, 
said " In a very recent case a photograph of a monument, 
with its records of death, &c., at Glasnevin, was produced in 
evidence before one of the superior Courts. That took place 
in the case of the Meredyths, a legitimacy case, which was 
tried before the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and a 
special jury, on an issue directed by Master Brooke. I was 
counsel for the parties in that case. We maintained the legi 
timacy of the several parties, and we had a photograph, as 
stated here, of the particular tomb produced. Master Brooke 
himself went out to see it. The question was was it tam 
pered with ? and the admirable manner in which the proceed 
ings of the committee were carried on was seen when the books 
were produced. The committee endeavour to prevent any 
defacement or alteration on any inscription. They will not 
allow any inscription once placed on the tomb to be altered by 
the parties ; they will, if you think fit, add an inscription. If, 
for instance, another member of the family die, you are at 
liberty to add an inscription in reference to that person, but 
you are never to alter an inscription, as to age or anything 
else." 

The great political organisation of O Connell was broken 
up by the secession of " Young Ireland." Famine and pesti 
lence then came and swept through the land. His heart was 
broken : reluctantly he obeyed the voice of his physician, 
who ordered him to a more sunny clime. At Genoa his 
strength completely gave way, and, just as the bright sun of 
an Italian May had set, he breathed his last bequeathing his 
heart to Rome and his body to Ireland. This sad event oc 
curred on May i5th, 1847. The Committee of Glasnevin 
Cemetery lost no time in soliciting the privilege of possessing 
what remained of him. The request was acceded to, and 
Mathias O Kelly the respected secretary of the Board left 
Ireland for Genoa charged with the mission of guarding to its 
last resting-place the embalmed corpse. In due time the 
honoured remains reached Dublin. The coffin had reposed on 
deck, within a temporary chapel, draped in black. The crape 
was at once claimed by, and distributed amongst, the crowd 
some of whom, kneeling and bareheaded, craved a relic of their 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 41 

lost leader. A great pall seemed spread over Dublin during 
four days that the coffin lay in the Pro-Cathedral. At length 
acolytes, in red and white, bearing torches, issued forth, fol 
lowed by lines of priests chanting the Miserere. The reception 
given by the people of Paris to the bones of Napoleon was 
less imposing and emotional than that which greeted the mortal 
part of O Connell. The coffin was laid on a bier drawn by 
six horses ; the triumphal car on which the Tribune had stood 
after his liberation from prison followed. A long train of 
mourning coaches came next, each horse led by a mute. All 
the trades, confraternities, and philanthropic societies of Dublin 
walked in procession ; bishops, judges, barristers, and mer 
chants proudly swelled its ranks. The various Corporations 
of Ireland, wrapped in their red robes, added to the picturesque 
effect. The roof of the General Post- Office was black with 
spectators. As the cortege passed over Carlisle (now O Connell) 
Bridge every ship in the river lowered its flag and manned its 
yards. Throughout the whole route to Glasnevin a sea of heads 
surged ; mingled prayers and sighs went up to Heaven, and 
one thinker soliloquised, in the works of Shelley 
" He has out-soared the shadow of our night, 

Envy, and calumny, and hate, and pain ; 
And that unrest which men miscall delight 

Can touch him not, nor torture him again." 

The Very Rev. Dr. Yore, a priest who had much influence 
with the people, was entrusted by the committee with the 
general management of the procession. The efficiency of the 
arrangements are acknowledged in the following letter : 

" MERRION SQUARE, 

"August 7th, 1847. 

" MY DEAR AND VERY REV. SIR, In the unavoidable 
absence of my elder brother, and in the name of our family, 
permit me to tender you and the other members of the Ceme 
tery Committee our most heartfelt thanks for your exertions 
in the arrangements and conducting of the funeral of our be 
loved and lamented father, and all connected with it. The 
order, the regularity, the decorum manifested on the occasion, 
when such vast masses congregated, must have been owing, in 
a great measure, to the good feelings of the people ; but I may 
fairly say the admirable arrangements made by the Cemetery 
Committee aided powerfully the good-will of all present in the 
procession, 



42 HISTORY OF THE 

"It was, indeed, consoling to our afflicted hearts to witness 
the respect paid to the beloved remains of our dear father, and 
the affectionate attention, activity, and zeal evinced by every 
member of the committee in the execution of those arduous 
duties voluntarily undertaken in paying a tribute of esteem 
and attachment to one who in life was their sincere friend and 
faithful counsellor. I have the honour to be, with much re 
spect, your grateful and obedient servant, 

" MORGAN O CONNELL. 
" The Very Rev. Dr. Yore, V.G., &c." 

The family of O Connell felt specially grateful and touched, 
the more so as the expenses attendant on the conveyance of 
the remains from Italy and the subsequent obsequies in Ireland 
were borne by the Cemeteries Committee. These appear to have 
amounted to ^"1,300, but do not include a sum of nearly ^"500 
expended on works connected with the last resting place of 
O Connell. It was a favourite idea of George Petrie, LL.D. (to 
whom Irish archaeology is much indebted), that the O Connell 
monument should consist of a group of buildings, including a 
chapel of the earliest style of Christian architecture, like that 
of Cormac on the Rock of Cashel, together with a Celtic stone 
cross similar to those found at Monasterboice and Clonmacnois, 
and lastly an accurate reproduction of one of those wonderful 
Round Towers, which lend to Ireland a peculiar interest and 
charm. The latter was begun first, and soon attained a height 
exceeding that of any of the ancient edifices after which the 
O Connell Tower had been fashioned. In this erection all the 
funds available for the purpose were spent, and Petrie s design, 
in its entirety, has never been carried out. But the new mor 
tuary chapel adjacent built on the plan of Cormac s, at 
Cashel supplies the omission, and as regards Celtic crosses, 
several fine specimens have since been raised. These crosses, 
as Christian memorials, strike the beholder as an agreeable 
contrast to the conventional broken column, inverted torches, 
urns, and other emblems of Paganism unsuited to a place of 
Christian sepulture. 

English readers will not suppose, after what has been said, 
that the failure to accomplish all that Petrie planned as a 
monument to O Connell, showed any decay of national grati 
tude. Good proof to the contrary is afforded by the erection 
in one of the noblest streets of Europe that now known as 
O Connell Street, Dublin of Foley s colossal group of stat 
uary, commemorative of the services of Ireland s Liberator, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



43 




THE O CONNELL MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY, 



44 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTER VI. 

GLASNEVIN Cemetery is somewhat cosmopolitan. The Italian 
and the Russian, the Gaul and the citizen of the world, are 
equally included. Father Aloysius Gentili, a powerful preacher, 
whose ascetic face was quite a sermon in itself, gave much 
of his toil to the evangelisation of Ireland. Originally a 
lawyer in Rome, just as Lacordaire had been in France and 
Bishop Bramston in England, Gentili entered the Order of 
Charity, and reaped harvest after harvest of wonderful con 
versions as the result of the missions to which he gave his 
great natural gifts and characteristic energy. In the midst of 
these labours he was called to his reward. The committee 
granted the vault to which his mortal part is consigned, and 
he fittingly rests near the grave of John Hogan, to whom, 
when the young Irish art student arrived in Rome, friendless, 
the great Italian lawyer extended a cordial helping hand. 
Gentili was regarded as a saint ; and for many years bits of 
his coffin were whittled away for relics by so-called pious per 
sons, who, in the performance of this theft shewed that they 
were far from scrupulous. 

A Redemptorist priest, Russian by birth, equally energetic 
as Gentili, but of a different type, and, like him, also an ex- 
jurist, was Father Vladimir Petcherine, who, by the hardihood 
with which he opposed the proselytism of the flocks amongst 
which his mission lay, was subjected to a prosecution chiefly 
memorable for one of the grandest of Lord O Hagan s bar 
efforts. The indiscretion for which the priest had been 
made amenable was that of publicly burning a bible the 
text of which, he declared, had been corrupted and its sense 
impaired. The ablest part of O Hagan s speech was a vindi 
cation of the Catholic Church from the, then, frequently made 
charge of hostility to the Scriptures. He showed that the 
Church had ever held that the Sacred Scriptures are the writ 
ten Word of God, and that to the care of the Church we owe 
its preservation. 

On the 1 3th November, 1836, Rev. Joachim Villaneuva, 
Canon of Cuenca, was buried here. A tomb bearing date 
1 8th October, 1849, records that Father Christobel Nogueras, 
O.D.C., rests beneath. 

Those who regard Glasnevin and Golden Bridge as exclu 
sively Irish cemeteries would, indeed, be surprised to find how 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



45 





INTERIOR VIEW OF LORD O HAGAN S VAULT. 



46 HISTORY OF THE 

very many representatives of alien races rest within their walls. 
The following names, which have been transcribed from the 
Registers, curiously show its cosmopolitan character, and how 
Death, like Poverty, levels all races and ranks : Austenburg, 
Adami-Caesari, Amdurski (several), Audibert, Alavoine, Alvaine, 
Andreazzi, Azzopardi, Amos, Arassus (Etienne), Brunetti, 
Bergami, Brabant, Bondidier, Boisserat, Barnasconi, Bernier, 
Bellevoine, Brunicardi, Butsch, Blendenburgh, Baldatchi, 
Bossi, Bliziby, Bronicordi, Brunicardi, Corsani, Cuetio or 
Cuoti, Cadosch, Carlos, Cluloe, Corri, Debeau, De la Combe, 
Des Veaux, Di Pina, De la Vega, De Montmorency, Doth- 
waite, Ferrara, Graeme, Goetz, Goucher, Gussani, Hoss- 
bach, Hugo, Hornbenger, Hermann, Jacques, Luchsi, Lan- 
phier, Lavelle, Lubi, Manzie, Memtaith, Monteith, Morgue, 
Monteira, Moschini, Mons, Mualt, Neuchwander, Nerna, 
Pattarga, Pedazio, Pedreschi, Pelio, Pessel, Perso, Peverelli, 
Phero, Picard, Pidoux, Pisani, Plasto, Pellisier, Porri, Poth- 
onier, Pappini, Privert, Parle, Patarga, Proleze, Pruniere, 
Pasqal, Porteous, Poirotte, Porri, Potokozey, Podesta, Rein- 
hardt, Repetto, Repet, Rolleri, Rossi,* Sacamani, Spiteri, 
Shugarr, Shieltheis, Sangiovanni, Sabbi, Scervante, Sezenic, 
Spadaccini, Szepanawski, Sugarr, Staciewitz (Rev. Gregory), 
Swerer, Tisserandot, Tozier, Tracq, Tritschler, Umbahorn, 
Vero, Veroni, Verso, Van Mannen, Vivash, Voiles, Valken- 
burgh, Vaudrant, Volpe, Volatti, Volkner, Voisin, Von Stentz, 
Vogel, Van Belle, Vanette, Valencie, Valencia, Vagge, Vaude 
Velde, Vuille, Weidner, Weckler, Weis, Wosser, Wylier, 
Ysasi, Zurth, Zipfel, Zumach, Zouch, Zenti. 

A visitor standing on the western walk of the Dublin Sec 
tion might almost imagine himself in Pere La Chaise, espe 
cially when the following lines arrest the eye : 

" Oh enfant cheri tu n as vecu qu un printemps, comme 
une ombre tu as passe de cette terre pour t envoler aux cieux."f 

* Familiar names, historic and otherwise, crop up in strange promiscuous- 
ness. The Cromwells are represented to the number of four Cranmer, Bos- 
well, Bannister, Horace. Hogarth, Holcroft, Pelham, Whittington, Ptolomey, 
Wycherley, Woffington, Widdicomb, Quadmaquin, and Zimmerman catch the 
eye. There are seven members of the Hempenstall family ; four Kebles. 
Even Bass and Alsop are found, and of the Communion of Israel, Hyam and 
Moses. 

t Among other French names observed in this section is that of " Amadee 
De Morin, Percy Place, 2nd August, 1858." He is said to have been a refugee 
from France at the Revolution of 1830. He used to sing the " Marseillaise " 
with marvellous enthusiasm. His face glowed with excitement ; a thrill 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 47 

M. Pruvot, the father of this child, died at Amiens, April 
25th, 1883, an d his remains were brought over for interment 
in the same grave.* Many of those who pass it join in the 
prayer: " Priez pour le repos de son ame." In the same 
section is seen a handsome, white sarcophagus, which came 
from Genoa, inscribed: " Rault de Ramsault de Tortonval." 
Among other foreign names which catch the eye is : " Charles 
Ducas, of St. John de Luz, France, nephew of Sir John Brad- 
street, Bart., died February i5th, 1859." 

The consignment of remains from remote places is a fre 
quent feature. To this " Home of the Dead" bodies have 
been borne from the Far West and the Antipodes. Australia 
sent over the body of Archdeacon Doyle. I also find in 
the Register : " Rev. Francis Bonaventure Brennan, Lee, 
Massachusetts, United States, America (body brought over 
embalmed), died i5th November, 1880." Coffins from the 
Indies come. A white, marble slab, wreathed with shamrocks, 
records that beneath reposes the heart of Surgeon- Major Clarke, 
who died at Dinapore, India, on 8th May, 1879. Another 
monument announces that it was raised by Harriet Monica 
Gibbons, of St. Petersburg, to her father and mother. There 
is a stone, dated 1885, to Christopher J. Nugent, of the Austrian 
service, and in the South Section another to Anna Longmore, 
who died in Austria, and bequeathed to Erin her heart, which 
duly arrived. 

Mr. W. C. Selley published, in the Liverpool Times, in 
August 6, 1881, under the heading, " An Englishman in Dub 
lin," a sketch of Glasnevin Cemetery in which a pleasing fea 
ture of the place is brought out. " Of course," he writes, 
" there are fine cemeteries in England as there are fine 
churches, but when I draw your attention to a Protestant 
cathedral and a Catholic cathedral, the Catholic reader will 
understand the internal beauty of the latter and the bareness 
of the former ; so it is with a Protestant and a Catholic ceme 
tery. Every grave in this immense resting-place is a study ; 
the monuments and head-stones erected are works of art, and 
adorned with flowers in vases and wreaths ; and the poorer 

seemed to pervade every nerve and fibre. He and Sir John Ennis, Bart,, 
married sisters, both daughters ot David Henry, Esq., Dublin. Other French 
names include Le Sage ( 1 7th January, 1846), Desire Pontet, Prosper Lore, 
Chantaperdrix, and Gustave Poirotte. 

* M. Pruvot left a large bequest to the committee, as well as many other 
families have done, to maintain and keep his monument in order in perpetuity. 



48 HISTORY OF THE 

graves show a daily care ; there are little glass houses at each 
end, within which the statue of our Blessed Lord, that of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Joseph, or other saint, with vases of 
real flowers at their feet." 

A charming illustration of the floral tribute at Glasnevin 
is found in Dr. More Madden s plot, in the South Section. It 
is to the memory of a favourite child, whose last words of in 
nocence " Good-bye ; I am going to God " are lovingly put 
on record. 

" Zozimus " a man not less familiarly known in Dublin 
than Solomon Eagle was in London at the period chronicled by 
Defoe, and later by Ainsworth ceased his perambulations at 
this time. He has been made the subject of a distinct bio 
graphy, and a page about him may be admissible here. His 
real name, as appears from the cemetery records, was Michael 
Moran. This man boasted that he walked in the footsteps ot 
Homer, and was as well known in Dublin as Nelson s Pillar. 
What old citizen does not remember that tall, gaunt, blind 
man, dressed in a heavy, long-tailed coat and a dinged high 
hat, armed with a blackthorn stick, secured to his wrist by a 
thong and finished by an iron ferule ? His upturned face dis 
played the whites of sightless eyes ; his boldly- marked facial 
muscles gave decision to his aspect ; his guttural voice often 
highly sonorous his Dublin brogue, rich and mellifluous ac 
companied by a strange lisp on certain words tempted mimics 
to go and do likewise. Evening after evening Zozimus made 
his pilgrimage through the streets, advancing with slow and 
measured steps, and halting at intervals to collect in his hat the 
alms of the faithful. His great popular recitation was "The 
Life, Conversion, and Death of St. Mary of Egypt, who was 
discovered in the Wilderness in the fifth century by pious 
Zozimus." This extraordinary poem, compiled from the 
" Acta Sanctorum," was written in the last century by Dr. 
Coyle, Bishop of Raphoe, and began : 

Th imperial throne when Theodosius held, 
In Palestine a holy hermit dwelled. 
Whose shining virtues and extensive fame 
The world astonished Zozimus his name. 

Other versions of the poem were given by our Dublin street 
bard, including 

On Egypt s plains, where flows the ancient Nile, 

Where ibex stalks, and swims the crocodile. 

which in due time became broadly parodied. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 49 

A sham " Zoz " once took his rounds on che same night as 
the real man, and created quite a sensation on Essex (now 
Grattan) Bridge, where both met and their sonorous tones 
mingled, to the confusion of their respective followers. On 
this occasion the real man called the other an " impostherer," 
but the latter gave back the epithet, and touchingly com 
plained of the heartlessness of mocking a poor dark man. 
Words ran high, and the sham "Zoz" said, "Good Chris 
tians, just give me a grip of that villian, and I ll soon let 
him know who the real impostherer is. Then pretending 
to give his victim a " guzzler," he pressed some silver into 
his hand and vanished. 

Mozart, on his death-bed, composed his own requiem, which 
skilled musicians took down from dictation. The Rev. Nicholas 
O Farrell, who was summoned to attend Zozimus when dying, 
stated that he found the room crowded with ballad-singers 
and Zozimus " dictatin ." Amongst other directions for his 
funeral said to have fallen from him were 

I have no coronet to go before me, 

Nor Bucephali-us that ever bore me ; 

But put my hat and stick and gloves together, 

That bore for years the very worst of weather, 

And rest assured in spirit will be there 

Mary of A-gypi and Susannah fair. 

And Pharoah s daughter with the heavenly blushes 

That took the drowning goslin from the rushes. 

I ll not permit a tomb-stone stuck above me, 

Nor effigy ; but, boys, if still yees love me, 

Build a nate house for all whose fate is hard, 

And give a bed to every wanderin bard. 

Michael Moran had reached the age of only 43, and he died 
from pulmonary disease, the result of exposure to severe 
weather. Two portraits of this strange character are extant 
one by Henry MacManus, R.H.A.,the other by Mr. Horatio 
Nelson. He was buried on Palm Sunday, the 5th April, 1846. 

Another bard, but of a much superior order of mind 
Hugh Clinch followed on June igth, 1847. He was the son 
of James Bernard Clinch. A modest volume, called "A Leaf 
of the Shamrock and other Poems," published in 1838, bears 
Hugh Clinch s name. If Zozimus liked noise and promin 
ence, Clinch sought seclusion to such purpose that his name 
is overlooked in the otherwise exhaustive "Dictionary of Irish 



50 HISTORY OF THE 

Poets," by David O Donoghue. In the Dublin Penny Journal 
will be found a sample of Clinch s muse, which, for true Irish 
wit and graphic power, can hardly be beaten. This ballad, 
" The Wedding of Darby McShawn," was constantly sung in 
society by John Cornelius O Callaghan. 

The visit of Jenny Lind to Dublin was a brilliant incident, 
but it had its shadows, too. Amongst those associated with 
her at that time was Signor Albani. A flat stone is inscribed, 
" Signor Lorenzo Albani, who died November 25, 1848." The 
remains came from a house in Pitt Street the same where 
Balfe was born. 

A monument to Lady Charlotte Mahon, who died 23rd 
January, 1849, is erected by her "grand-daughter, Mary 
Warden Flood "a representative of the great orator who, 
with Grattan, thundered in the Irish Parliament. 

Life had lost its zest for " Honest Tom Steele " when 
O Connell died. For twenty years he followed, with an en 
thusiastic devotion, the illustrious " Father of his Country," 
as he loved to style him. A graduate of Cambridge ; a landed 
proprietor of Clare; a cultured writer: above all, a Protestant, 
his adhesion to O Connell s standard was rapturously hailed. 
The " Liberator" bestowed upon him the title of " Head Paci 
ficator," in recognition of his efforts to put down faction fight 
ing and those local dissensions which weakened the great cause 
that both had at heart. But he was, in point of fact, a brave 
man ; and having entered the Spanish service in 1823, he won 
laurels by various warlike operations, including the defence of 
Cadiz. He had a dash of romance in his nature. Sir Bernard 
Burke says he preferred the old ruin of Creggan, upon his 
property, to his comfortable home, and meditated its restora 
tion. Of commanding stature, he loved to wear a shako and 
a military frock coat, imposingly frogged ; and stern resolution 
was stamped on his bronze face. He was tried with O Connell 
in the State prosecutions of 1843, but rising to interrupt Attor 
ney-General Smith, the latter exclaimed, " If you do not be 
quiet, I will strike out your name from the list of traversers." 
The threat told. The gibbet or the stake would not have 
seemed half so severe a punishment. He went to prison, as 
he had hoped, with O Connell ; but on appeal to the House of 
Lords his leader and himself were set free the following year. 
In 1847 he felt acutely the death of his chief; then came the 
visitation of famine, which laid waste the land he loved so well. 
He sought to put an end to the existence which had now 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




52 HISTORY OF THE 

become a burden, but happily that fate was averted by the in 
terposition of friends. His financial affairs having fallen into 
confusion, Lord Brougham and other political opponents gene 
rously tendered help, which he declined. At last death came 
to the rescue, in London, on June 15, 1848. The Cemeteries 
Committee had his remains removed to Dublin, and after some 
time placed them in a crypt, close to the coffin of his chief, 
and also defrayed the expense of a fine monument. " Noble, 
honest Tom Steele !" exclaimed the Standard, in recording his 
death, " fare thee well. A braver spirit in a gentler heart never 
left earth let us humbly hope for that home where the weary 
find rest." " He was simply driven to his grave," exclaimed 
some one at the funeral. " You would not expect a dead man 
to walk there," was Pat Costelloe s unseemly joke. There 
was a double fitness as regards the place where the bones of 
Steele are laid, which, to a man of his romantic temperament, 
would have been approved. They are close to those of O Con- 
nell, and in grounds which were formerly the favourite resort 
of a valued ancestor, Sir Richard Steele, who lived at Glas- 
nevin. The latter had been associated with Addison in literary 
labour, and a part of Glasnevin is still pointed out as "Addi- 
son s Walk."* 

In April, 1849, the cholera broke out in Dublin, and con 
tinued to rage with unremitting violence until late in October, 
when the ordinarily high death rate of that month came to its 
relief. Among the victims was William Murphy, popularly 
regarded as "the millionaire," and two priests, both of St. 
Audeon s, High Street, the Rev. Patrick Crump and the Rev. 
J. J. Sheppard. A large monument, with the faces of both 
priests sculptured in marble, is found in the Dublin Section. 

Lever, when writing " Charles O Malley," introduced 
Maurice Quill into his spirited picture of the Peninsular cam 
paign ; but had he known Captain Henry Quill, of the 32nd, 

* Some of his great thoughts may have risen to Heaven as he paced this 
walk, or trod the sward now r-idged with graves. 
" It must be so : 

Else whence this pleasing hope, this fond desire, 
This longing after immortality ? 
Or whence this secret dread and inward horror 
Of falling into naught ? Why shrinks the soul 
Back on itself, and startles at destruction ? 
Tis the Divinity that stirs within us ; 
Tis Heaven itself that points out a hereafter 
And intimates Eternity to man." ADDISON. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 53 

he could have made the narrative still more stirring. This 
distinguished officer died on March 26th, 1849, and the inscrip 
tion on his tomb records that he " served with his corps to the 
close of the Peninsular War. At the siege of Burgos his leg 
was shattered and his left eye carried away by a ball. He 
received two gunshot wounds in the chest at Waterloo. One 
of the balls fractured the collar-bone and penetrated the lung, 
in which it became embedded. The long train of suffering 
ensuing, and the hemorrhage it induced, ultimately proved 
fatal."* 

From a fuller account of his services it appears that he was 
wounded at Salamanca, and on the i6th June, 1815, took part 
in the action with Ney s column at Quatre Bras. Undaunted 
by the sufferings of personal experience, this gallant veteran 
gave his two sons to the service. A tablet further records the 
death, at the age of 20, of Lieut. Thomas P. Quill, who "served 
in the 8oth Regiment during the Burmese war of 1852, and 
was present at the capture of Martabar, operations before 
Rangoon, the capture of the Great Pagoda with a storming 
party ; also at the capture of Prome. He was five years in 
the service and died at Calcutta, August 25, 1853, from the 
privations he endured in the campaign. The second son, 
Lieut. Henry Quill, of the 35th Regiment, died September 
25th, 1863. 

Commissary-General Goldrisk had been associated with the 
Peninsular veteran, Quill, but with less danger to personal 
safety. He preceded to the grave the man who was scarred 
with wounds, and his head-stone is found immediately outside 
the Chapel Circle. 

In midsummer, 1849, another remarkable man was laid to 
rest at Glasnevin, and the pilgrims to his tomb almost out 
number those who hang their garlands on that of O Connell. 
"James Clarence Mangan," observes an American writer, 
"was a poetic genius. Like the Persian poet, he lived in an 
ethereal world, floating amid the stars, where he heard the 
sublime strains of a golden harp touched by angelic hands. 
He reclined on the summit of Parnassus, and from its towering 
heights gazed out on the wond rous beauty of the divine pano 
rama of nature. What land has the divine artist painted with 

* A bit of red cloth belonging to his uniform surrounded the bullet, and 
both remained undisturbed until his death, 34 years after. A portly pamphlet 
on the naval and military services of the Quill family of whom fifteen fought 
for their king and country has been printed for private circulation. 



54 HISTORY OF THE 

variegated tints, exquisite shading, sweet and delicate har 
monies, revealing the most sublime contrast, as Erin of the 
Streams ? Its green fields, rolling meadows, verdant hills, 
emerald valleys, picturesque lakes, graceful and majestic moun 
tains, glorious bays, crystalline streams, jumping, tumbling, 
bounding, rippling, murmuring, singing in their serpentine 
course to swell the rapid currents of the Shannon, the Black- 
water, the Slaney, and the Avoca." Mangan, like De Quincy, 
was the bond slave of opium, and the trans-Atlantic scribe 
may not know that under its fatal spell were produced myriads 
of those poetic prisms which dazzled the far-off land, itself so 
rich in scenic splendour. The essayist pictures him reclining 
on the heights of Parnassus ; but John Mitchell, who used to 
see Mangan in Trinity College Library, has left us a sketch, 
obviously truthful, and as such most welcome to this history. 
" It was an unearthly figure, in a brown garment the same 
garment (to all appearance) which lasted till the day of his 
death. The blanched hair was totally unkempt ; the corpse- 
like features still as marble ; a large book was in his arms, and 
all his soul was in the book. . . . Here Mangan laboured 
mechanically, and dreamed, roosting on a ladder, for certain 
months, perhaps years, carrying the proceeds in money to his 
mother s poor home, storing in his memory the proceeds which 
were not in money, but in another kind of ore which might 
feed the imagination, indeed, but was not available for board 
and lodging." 

Mr. T. D. Sullivan, M.P. himself a poet of mark com 
plains that Mangan s tomb displays not one word " to indicate 
the true child of genius and singularly gifted poet." Some 
details, therefore, may prove not unacceptable here. It is by 
his spirited translations from Schiller and Goethe that Mangan 
will be best remembered. In the exquisite poem with which 
he makes the Teutonic muse to sing in English, and causes the 
genius of the Fatherland to pass into our Irish vernacular, he 
has excelled all contemporaries. But, although evincing a 
fondness for Continental poesy, he was as true to Erin as he 
proved himself to be faithful to the memory of a mysterious 
" Frances," for whom, in early days, he conceived an unre 
quited passion, and who, almost until the last scene of all, flits 
like an angel through his poems. Of purely Irish pieces, 
" Neill of the Wine-Red Hand," " Dark Rosaleen," and the 
"Lament for Tyrone and Tyrconnell " are among the best. 
On June 2ist, 1849, at the age of 46, he took ill in a back street 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



55 




CLARENCE MANGAN s MONUMENT, GLASNEV1N CEMETERY. 



56 HISTORY OF THE 

of Dublin and was borne to the Meath Hospital, where he 
breathed his last. Hercules Ellis, an ardent admirer of the 
poor poet, when he heard of Mangan s death, called at the 
hospital, and has penned a painful description of the man who 
had so often given him delight, stretched stiff, stark, and naked 
on a deal table ; but he could hardly have appeared more 
corpse-like than Mitchell s picture of him when engaged at 
toil. Another visitor came to the hospital, moved by mingled 
emotions Sir F. W. Burton, subsequently keeper of the Na 
tional Gallery, London, who has left us a picture of the poet 
as he lay dead. 

Mangan s touching lines, " Twenty Golden Years Ago," 
foreshadowed all that followed. 

" Tic-tic, tic-tic ; not a sound save Time s 

And the wind-gust as it drives the rain 
Tortured torturer of reluctant rhymes 

Go to bed and rest thy aching brain. 
Sleep no more the dupe of hopes and schemes, 

Soon thou sleepest where the thistles blow, 
Curious anti-climax to thy dreams 

Twenty golden years ago." 

Mangan, although most given to the German poets, was 
very familiar with those of France, Spain, and Italy, and he 
loved to recite Dante s lines, in which Ugolino was done to 
death in the Tower of Famine possibly in grim foreboding of 
a fate not widely different from his own. Like Lamb, he would 
sometimes seek to ease the tired brain by playing upon words, 
and once, when congratulated on a poem, which, however, had 
been translated from Hanz, a Persian poet, he replied that it 
was only half -his.* 

I have said that the pilgrims to his shrine sometimes out 
number those who kneel in the O Connell crypt. 

" And be it told to the honour of this exceptionally gifted 
man," writes Father C. P. Meehan, " at whose grave some 
modern Pharisees have cast shards and flints of obloquy, that 
he never in all his life bodied forth on paper a single thought 
or suggestion that could flutter modesty even for an instant. 
Nay more, his conversation, meekness, and unpretentiousness 
would not unbeseem a Carthusian cloister ; and be his errors of 
head what they may have been, it must be said that he never 

* The late Denis Florence MacCarthy, to W. J. F., June, 1864. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 57 

lost faith in God or hope in the Divine mercy. To the despond 
ing and broken of heart, what preacher has ever spoken balmier 
consolation than we find in this exquisite verbal melody ? 

But if drooping turn thy gaze 

Where the gilded cloud is gleaming, 

Let thy heart divinely dreaming 
Drink of Hope s Aurora rays, 
See where Heaven its arch uprears, 

Shine the ever golden portals, 

With the blest inscription " MORTALS, 
You shall meet in happier spheres." 

Charles Aylmer, the scion of an ancient race in Kildare, 
was one of four other Irishmen who, in 1814, assisted at Rome 
at the formal restoration of the Society of Jesus, after its sup 
pression in 1773 by Clement XIV. He returned to Ireland 
and took an active part in establishing Clongowes College, 
which adjoined his ancestral home. When the See of Kildare 
became vacant he was recommended, in conjunction with the 
famous J. K. L., for its mitre. His writings are " A Life of 
St. Aloysius," " The Exercises of Aloysius," " Bona Mors," 
" Three Hours Agony, " The Novena of St. Francis," " A 
Spiritual Retreat," and others. He was called to his reward 
on the 4th July, 1849. 

Thomas J. Lee, M.D., Cavendish Row, represented both 
Archbishop Carpenter and Archbishop Troy, who, in trying 
times, had ruled the Archdiocese of Dublin. In September, 
1849, his funeral entered Glasnevin Cemetery. He was the 
father of the late Dean Lee, P.P., V.G., of Bray, and of Canon 
Lee, Pastor of Haddington Road Church. An inscription on 
the side panel of his monument depicts a state of things hard 
to realise at this day. It was introduced, I find, by the special 
instructions of Dean Lee: "This family, driven by religious 
persecution from their hereditary burial-place, in the church 
yard of St. Michan, Dublin, have sought here a place of rest." 

John Breen, M.D., F.K.Q.C.P. the butt of Dr. Brennan s 
relentless onslaughts in the Milesian Magazine was buried June 
12, 1850. He had been educated for the Church, and never 
relinquished the gentleness of manner peculiar to priests of 
penal days. " Come, Creep-mouse Breeny O ! " occurs in one 
of the squibs which notices this characteristic. 

On December 14, 1850, James Charles Bacon, a man of 
much philanthropy, was buried here. A carving in bas-relief 



58 HISTORY OF THE 

depicts him caressing orphan children. A man of less ascetic 
type was James Scott Molloy, a well-known solicitor, buried 
at the same time. " The Law Scrutiny ; or Attorney s Guide," 
a satire, by William Norcott, was published in 1807. Ad 
dressing a father of the craft, he says : 

" And doubtless will your vacant hours employ 

T instruct your simple friend, J S M ." 

Molloy filled the public post of Official Assignee in the 
Court for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors. 

Cornelius MacLoughlin, an old member of the society of 
United Irishmen, and a staunch ally of O Connell in successive 
political struggles, also joined the majority this year. Readers 
who care to study the exciting period of 1798 should see Dr. 
Madden s " United Irishmen "(Vol. II., p. 50), where a dramatic 
incident, which took place at the house of Con MacLoughlin, is 
described. He served for many years on the Board of the 
Cemetery. Having reached the patriarchal age of 90, he died 
at Fitzwilliam Place, May 28th, 1851. 

Students of the stormy period of 1798 and 1803 will remem 
ber the case of Anne Develin, who was at first vainly bribed 
and afterwards cruelly tortured in the hope of persuading her 
to turn informer. Dr. Madden regarded her as a heroine, and 
in his "Lives and Times of the United Irishmen" devotes 
much space to her history and its vicissitudes. 

" My next inquiry," he writes, " was after her remains. 
Thanks to the admirable mode of burial registration in the 
Cemetery of Glasnevin, and the facilities afforded me by the 
secretary of the committee, the spot was speedily ascertained 
in that portion of the Cemetery set apart for pauper burials. 
In a few days the assistance of some friends enabled me to 
have her remains removed to that part of the Cemetery which 
is in most request very near the spot where the remains of 
O Connell are deposited. The usual fees paid for such removals 
were remitted on this occasion, and permission was granted 
to have a monument erected over the grave not unworthy of 
the place or the person." 

Over the inscription the most suitable of all emblems, the 
cross, is sculptured, and underneath there is a device that is 
thought an appropriate one on the tombstone over the grave 
of the faithful servant of Robert Emmet an Irish wolf-dog, 
crouching on a bank of shamrocks, with an earnest look and 
watchful expression. Anne Develin died i8th September, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



59 




THE GRAVE OF ANNE DEVLIN, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY, 



6O HISTORY OF THE 

A less lowly tomb is one in Curran s Square erected by 
Robert Netterville, in November, 1851, to Annabelle, daughter 
of Henry Mayne and grand-niece of General Sir Robert Rollo 
Gillespie, Bart. 

Five Theobald Butlers figure in Irish history, though Carte 
thinks it not unlikely that the third and fourth may be identi 
cal. But, however hazy the record of their services may have 
become, there is no doubt whatever as to those of their des 
cendant, Major Theobald Butler, who died 26th December, 
1851, aged 66 years. The following inscription is found on his 
headstone alongside the Oak Walk of the Dublin Section : 
" Having entered the British army at an early age, he served 
under Sir John Moore, and subsequently under His Grace the 
Duke of Wellington, through the Peninsular Wars, for which 
he received medal and seven clasps. He also received a second 
medal for being present at the memorable battle of Waterloo, 
in 1815." 

Major Theobald Butler was present at Corunna when a 
cannon ball struck Sir John Moore, and helped to lay his chief 
in the hurriedly-prepared grave, where he lay " like a warrior 
taking his rest." 

Some of the brightest and warmest lays in the " Spirit of 
the Nation," as also in Sir Gavan Duffy s " Ballad Poetry of 
Ireland," bear the signature of " J. de Jean." 

He had previously published, in 1845, " Poems for the 
People," and in 1851 a volume of fugitive pieces; he also 
wrote under the signature of " J. Robertson," " Maria," " L," 
"G," and "F," as we learn from David O Donoghue, who has 
been at much pains to trace the effusions of his muse. "Jnn- 
gamiis Dexteras" was his motto quite as much as "Erin go 
Bragh." De Jean nobly sought to cement the bonds of brother 
hood between the hitherto hostile forces of Orange and Green. 
A party song had been composed in 98, called " The Boyne 
Water," to the tune of which red blood had been shed between 
the colours just named. " On July the Twelfth, 1843, when 
O Connell was organising what he called a " bloodless revolu 
tion," De Jean essayed to heal old wounds by a new balm 



Come pledge again thy heart and hand 
One grasp that ne er shall sever ; 

Our watchword be " Our native land "- 
Our motto " Love for ever," 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 6l 

And let the Orange lily be 

Thy badge, my patriot brother 
The everlasting Green for me ; 

And we for one another. 

The fire of De Jean s genius was quenched too soon. He 
wrote not for fame. His real name, as appears from the re 
cords of the cemetery, w r as "John Frazer, age, 48 years; 
residence, Jervis Street ; date of burial, March 23, 1852." He 
left a daughter, who became the wife of Thomas Clarke Luby, 
T.C.D., editor of the Irish People, and author of the " Life and 
Times of Daniel O Connell." Frazer had also been a journal 
ist, and conducted the Advocate, a Dublin print. He died poor. 
His grave was not secured "in perpetuity," and a person named 
Eliza Daly seems to have been buried in it. No stone marks 
Frazer s grave ; but it is not too late to discharge this small 
debt to a highly interesting memory. 

Appended to the record of the burial, on nth September, 
1852, of " Maria Kirwan, aged 28, of 6 Merrion Street, Upper," 
is a note in the autograph of Mathias O Kelly, then secretary 
to the Cemetery, i.e., "murdered by her husband at Ireland s 
Eye"! The grave was bought by William Burke Kirwan, 
"miniature painter," who for nearly two months after the 
murder seems not to have been suspected of foul play. The 
lonely and picturesque isle on which her death occurred is one 
mile from the Hill of Howth, and bears traces of the ruined 
Abbey of St. Nessan, in which was once preserved the Book of 
the Four Gospels, known as the " Garland of Howth." While 
his wife was bathing, Kirwan claimed to have been making 
sketches of the scenery. Piteous screams had been heard at 
Howth, and in a fissure between two rocks the body of Maria 
Kirwan was found. Isaac Butt defended Kirwan, but defended 
him badly, as he himself often confessed. He defied the pro 
secuting counsel the subsequent Mr. Justice Hayes to show 
how a murder could have been committed. Hayes drew 
so realistic a picture of the dreadful deed that a shudder shook 
the court. Kirwan was found guilty on December 10, 1852, 
and Judge Crampton, in sentencing him to be hanged, said 
" The wife whom you vowed to cherish you destroyed while 
you spared the courtesan." Some English newspapers took up 
his case and hysterically sought to save him. James Knight 
Boswell wrote a pamphlet with the same design. One man, 
however, could have hanged him Dr. Geoghegan, F.R. C.S.I., 



62 HISTORY OF THE 

who made a post mortem examination and found that a sword- 
cane or similar instrument had been driven through her body. 
Strange to say, Dr. Geoghegan was not called on the trial. 
Meanwhile influential friends were not idle. Kirwan had a con 
siderable medical knowledge, having been constantly employed 
by the profession in painting studies from anatomical specimens. 
Sir Philip Crampton persuaded Judge Crampton, who tried 
the case, that the medical evidence was insufficient. A reprieve 
was obtained, and subsequently a commutation to penal servi 
tude for life. He was sent to Bermuda, where he met Smith 
O Brien, John Mitchell, Meagher, and MacManus. Reaction 
of feeling soon set in against him. It was said that his mother- 
in-law and others had mysteriously disappeared, and in a search 
for new evidence the garden of his late residence was ripped up. 
From Bermuda he was transferred to Spike Island, near Cork. 
At length, after twenty-seven years detention, he was released 
on condition of expatriating himself to America. He received 
from the governor 70, which had remained to his credit, and 
repaired to Queenstown ; but the ship which should have called 
at that port failed to do so. The man who, it was thought, 
would spring from his prison like a liberated rat from its 
trap, returned to Spike Island begging re-admission to his cell, 
in which he remained until new arrangements were made. 
" Love is stronger than death," saith Solomon ; " and jealousy 
more cruel than the grave." On arriving in New York he dis 
covered the woman with whom he had lived nearly thirty years 
before. She soon wrote, in appealing terms, to the prison 
authorities requesting some assistance for Kirwan ; but the 
claim it was impossible to recognise. Years rolled on, and one 
day an old man hired a boat to Ireland s Eye, and spent some 
hours testing how far the human voice was capable of making 
itself heard at the mainland. Maria Kirwan s grave unmarked 
by a stone is numbered "XD 39," and will be found near 
the Oak Walk of the Dublin Section. No other interment 
has been made in the grave. The horrible story produced a 
profound sensation, and for twenty years Kirwan s fine house 
in Merrion Street remained without a tenant.* 

A man whose death came at this time was Joseph Denis 
Mullen, Governor of the Four Courts Marshalsea. His name 
surmounts a vault in the Old Circle, with the date of demise 

* This case is included in the list of murders given in Hayden s " Diction 
ary of Dates" 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 63 

1852. He had been a prominent member of the Catholic 
Association, and gave efficient aid to O Connell in establishing 
the Catholic Cemeteries. The assistance of Mr. Mullen proved 
very valuable to O Connell in his election for Dublin. 
How old and staunch was Mullen s friendship is shown by 
" Anacreon in Dublin," published at London in 1814, and 
known to have been written by Edmund Lenthal Swift. 
Mullen was a native of Francis Street, in the "Liberty." 

" Haste thee now, ingenious Mullen, 
Though the Liberty is dull in 
Manufacture, trade, or pay, 
Thou must form a Cup to-day. 
Though our need should make us thrifty, 
We will spend our guineas fifty, 
And contribute, every man, 
To the famous Lawyer Dan." 

The " Cup" presented by the manufacturers of the Liberty 
is in possession of O Connell s family.* 

" My father regarded Moore s Irish Melodies as a most 
valuable aid in his effort to achieve Catholic Emancipation," 
writes the son of O Connell. But Moore was also " the poet 
of all circles the idol of his own," to quote Byron s words. 
When, in 1850, news of Moore s failing health reached Ire 
land, the Cemeteries Committee put upon their minutes that, 
" in the event of his demise, they were prepared to expend a 
sum of ^"500 for expenses attendant on the transfer of his remains 
to Ireland, and on his funeral." During two years his once 
bright mind remained a gloomy blank ; at last, in 1852, news 
of his death came. A letter was addressed to Mrs. Moore ap 
prising her of the wish so generally felt that he should rest in 
that " Dear Isle of his own," of which he had so sweetly sung. 
But, as all who read his " Journals" know, " Bessie " was a 
woman of most retiring habits, and preferred that he should 
sleep near the rural spot where he died. Instead, therefore, of 
a palatial pile raised to his memory at Glasnevin 

A green grave rises 

On thy sward -Devizes/)" 

* Several letters addressed to Mullen appear in the " Private Correspond 
ence of O Connell " ; see also the " Life of Lord Melbourne," by Torrens ; 
and the " Life and Times of Lord Cloncurry. " 

t Denis Florence M Carthy. 



64 HISTORY OF THE 

Some months previously, i.e, on May 25th, 1851, Richard 
Lalor Shiel, the eloquent champion of civil and religious 
liberty at a time when penal chains clanked around him, died 
British Minister at Florence. The Cemeteries Committee 
suggested that his remains might fittingly rest near those of 
O Connell ; but Mrs. Shiel wished that his grave might be 
where she could in death sleep beside him. 

In 1853 the bloodhounds which had so long guarded Glas- 
nevin Cemetery bayed no more. How the Committee came to 
relinquish the services of those vigilant and faithful creatures 
arose in this way. An annual stipend had been paid to a 
physician to attend, in case of illness, the Cemetery staff. 
Dr. Kirwan, the well-known City Coroner, was the last to fill 
this post. One night, when hurrying through the Cemetery to 
visit Mr. Walker, the sexton, Dr. Kirwan was suddenly at 
tacked by the bloodhounds. Their mission from the first had 
been one of hostility to such medical men as dared to invade 
the Cemetery at night ; and, with canine instinct, they are said 
to have scented on this occasion a son of Galen. Dr. Kirwan, 
placing his back against a tombstone, sought to keep the blood 
hounds at bay, and for some minutes the City Coroner was in 
imminent risk of furnishing in his own person a sensational 
case for inquest on the morrow. At last his lusty _cries for 
help were heard above the canine chorus. Help arrived, and 
thus Dr. Kirwan narrowly escaped the fate of Actaeon. He 
was a cultured man the attached friend of Archbishop Murray, 
whose house he occupied after the death of that prelate. 
The nocturnal incident naturally caused a shock.* As a result 
the bloodhounds were banished. But, in point of fact, the 
outrages which they had been got to prevent had long pre 
viously ceased, thanks to the operation of the Anatomy Act. 



* Dr. Kirwan was attacked near the Old Chapel Circle, and close to the 
spot where his own tomb now stands. It records that his death took place 
3rd February, 1868. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 65 



CHAPTER VII. 

ON May the 241)1, 1853, the right hand of Frederick William 
Conway lost its cunning, and " the ablest man ever connected 
with the Irish Press,"* to quote the words of Dr. Madden 
sank to rest in Glasnevin Cemetery. His life was spent in the 
clangour of conflict, and if written would prove a valuable 
fragment of Irish history. The "Journals" of Thomas Moore 
often record his interviews with Conway, to whom he was 
warmly attached. But Conway, though a prominent actor in 
the political struggles of the time, would regularly bare his 
wounds in the society of the Muses, whose healing powers he 
held in high esteem. Wit, Poetry, and Philosophy were his 
divinities, and he constantly sought renewed strength in wor 
shiping all three. His splendid library of books, all uniformly 
bound, were dispersed after his death by the auctioneer s ham 
mer, and the book-hunter of to-day, when pursuing his tramp, 
recognises with mingled feelings solitary survivors of the old 
set, u clad in leathern panoply," lifting their heads haughtily 
amid mushrooms of modern literature. Conway died at his 
picturesque residence, St. Kevin s, Old Rathmines, at the age 
of 71, and was buried on the 27th of May, 1853. A fine 
marble bust of Conway remained in the possession of his son-in- 
law, Michael Dwyer, Esq., late Registrar of Deeds ; but he is 
more graphically depicted in a well-known oil painting by 
Haverty, supported on each side by Daniel O Connell and 
Patrick Vincent FitzPatrick. 

Another old member of the Catholic Association died at 
this time, Sir Simon Bradstreet, Bart., of Stacumney, County 
Kildare. He was nearly connected with the houses of Mount- 
garret and Cavendish, and represented a family which had 
obtained from Cromwell grants of land in Kilkenny. He died 
in October, 1853. 

On June 24th, 1853, Maurice O Connell, the ablest son of 
the " Liberator," was buried. He had the voice, manner, and 
figure of his father, and stood shoulder to shoulder with him 
in the struggles of the time. His gentler moments were 
given to the muses. His poem, " Dunkerron Castle," was 



* " History of Penal Laws against Roman Catholics," by R. R. Madden, 
p. 50. 

F 



66 HISTORY OF THE 

much praised by John Cornelius O Callaghan,* and to him also 
we owe the " Memoirs of General Cloney,"f which he unos 
tentatiously compiled under the dictation of the rebel chief, 
whose neglected early education disqualified him for the task. 
In the midst of a bright parliamentary career, Maurice 
O Connell died at his post, aged 49. His " Recruiting Song 
for the Irish Brigade," a spirited lyric, appears in Barry s 
" Songs of Ireland"- 

Is there a youthful gallant here 

On fire for fame unknowing fear 

Who in the charge s mad career 

On Eire s foes would flesh his spear ? 

Come let him wear the White Cockade, 

And learn the soldier s glorious trade, 

Tis of such stuff a hero s made, 

Then let him join the Bold Brigade. 

A tomb, also dated June, 1853, on which the name of Sir 
Walter Blake, Bart., of Menlo Castle, is inscribed though it 
does not appear that he himself is buried there is found in the 
Chapel Circle. Here rests his son-in-law, Stephen Burke, 
County Inspector of Constabulary, after an active career in 
stirring days. 

On October the 5th, 1853, an appalling accident occurred 
at Straffan, on the Great Southern & Western Railway. An 
express from Killarney and the South had been brought to a 
stand-still owing to some defect in the engine, and was run into 
by a heavy goods train also en route to Dublin. It went clean 
through a first-class carriage that was last in the express train, 
driving the remainder into a heap of ruins. The carnage was 
dreadful. A fine poem by William Allingham, descriptive of 
this tragedy, opens with a fond adieu bade to Killarney s woods, 
its purple mountains, and falling floods. 

The magic car of modern skill, 

Nor hour nor distance heeds ; 
With beat and roar and whistle shrill, 

On through the dusk it speeds. 

* Maurice O Connell was a duellist and so good a marksman that, at Derry- 
nane, he could hit an eagle with a single ball. He challenged Blennerhasset, 
of Ballycudy. Three shots were interchanged ; O Connell s second and third 
pistol missed fire, luckily for Blennerhasset. Letter of James Connor, first 
cousin of Maurice O Connell. 

f His sister, Mrs. FitzSimon, mentioned this fact, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 67 

Our friends in Dublin city gay, 

Expectant name our names ; 
" The fog is out to-night," they say, 

And stir the kindly flames. 

Oh ! chiller than October s touch 

Is freezing many a smile ! 
Terror and mortal torments clutch 

What love expects the while. 

Love s self, however true and warm, 

Might fail to recognise 
The dear, the well-remember d form, 

If set before its eyes ! 

Mong twisted metal, splinter d wood, 

Half buried in the ground, 
Mong heaps of limbs crush d up in blood, 

Must wife, child, friend be found. 

No hostile cannonade, or mine, 

Perform cl the cruel wrong ; 
Through peaceful fields they sped to join 

The city s sprightly throng. 

Not a few of those so suddenly hurled into eternity were 
coming to attend the ceremonial with which Dargan s Great 
Exhibition of that year closed. Others were solely intent on 
prosecuting, as the great aim of their lives, the craft in which 
each had anxiously embarked. One of the passengers, Mr. 
Jelly, put his head out of the window for a moment and was 
instantly decapitated. Christopher MacNally, a well-known 
solicitor of Dublin, also instantaneously perished. MacNally, 
with other victims, \vas laid in Glasnevin Cemetery on October 
the gth, 1853. A monument has been erected by his widow. 
The death of O Connell s nephew Mr. MacSweeney and his 
wife were specially deplored. 

John Keogh, the leader of the Irish Catholics previous to 
O Connell, had sons who inherited much of his fire and patriot 
ism. John Keogh, his second son, was buried here on Sep 
tember 1 3th, 1854, an d others of the family followed. 

On October i2th, 1854, died Patrick O Higgins, or, as he is 
described, " The O Higgins," an active leader in the Chartist 
movement and President of the Universal Suffrage Associa 
tion. 

" Here lies an editor" is said to have been rudely graven 



68 



HISTORY OF THE 




JOHN KEOGH S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




F. w. CON WAY S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



JO HISTORY OF THE 

on an equally rude tombstone at Arkansas. But editors are 
treated with scant courtesy in America, and are "hided" as 
often as they are feted nearer home. Richard Barrett, editor 
of the Pilot, received not a few ovations as a Repeal Martyr 
and fellow-prisoner of O Connell in 1844. As a Protestant, 
his adhesion to the standard of the Great Tribune was joyously 
hailed, and thus it came about : O Connell s first acquaintance 
with him was formed at what professed to be a charity dinner, 
but which was really a political reunion. Barrett was then 
attached to the Conservative Press. However, in a post 
prandial speech the genial expression fell from him that while 
Wilberforce was earning the thanks of philanthropists for his 
efforts to liberate black slaves abroad, O Connell had earned 
lasting gratitude for his exertions on behalf of white ones at 
home. The Pressman and the Tribune soon came to know 
each other well, and O Connell was specially glad to secure 
him as confidential colleague in political work. He brought 
prestige with him, too. Barrett s family were not unknown to 
fame; his brother, Eaton Stannard, who died in 1820, had won 
literary distinction, and the earlier volumes of Notes and Queries 
show the interest which attached to his name. 

James Lamb s " Impressions of Ireland and the Irish " in 
cludes (I., pp. 88-9) a long description of Barrett : " In his 
face you confidently read energy and determination of charac 
ter. In the management of his paper he is free and fearless, 
slashing away at the enemy regardless of their cries for mercy."* 

Between Barrett and Conway a fierce battle had long raged. 
Conway deserted and maligned O Connell, while Barrett s 
newspaper became the organ of his policy. It may be said 
that Conway and Barrett fell together 

Mamilius smote Herminius 

Through head-piece and through head ; 

And side by side, those chiefs of pride, 
Together fell down dead. 

* Personality intermingled with the polemics of that clay. Barrett accused 
Robert Holmes of being a hunks, who for every guinea he got spent merely 
the shilling and hoarded the pound. Holmes challenged him to mortal 
combat. Barrett replied that, having a wife and a large family depending on 
him for bread, he did not conceive that he was bound to risk his life to gratify 
an enemy. Holmes then wrote a stinging letter, of which the pith was that 
this consideration need not deter him, for he solemnly promised, in case Barrett 
fell, to settle a fair annuity on his family. Barrett also assailed Charles Gavan 
Duffy, who in his great book, " Four Years of Irish History," returns his fire. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES JI 

The year 1855 is mentioned in Webb s " Irish Biographies" 
as the date of Barrett s death. It appears from the records of 
the Cemetery that the order for his burial was taken out on 
October the lyth, 1854. At this time also one of the last sur 
viving friends of Curran, John Lube, of the Middle Temple, 
was laid beside him. 

Glasnevin Cemetery was thronged on May I4th, 1856, for 
on that day a once well-known man, John Finlay, LL.D., was 
buried in presence of troops of his co-religionists, as well as 
of Catholics and Dissenters, who remembered how ungrudg 
ingly he had given his great talents in furtherance of their 
emancipation. "The London Catalogue of Books" (1816 to 
1851) records a long list of his works dealing with law and 
equity ; but it is as the miscellaneous writer that one prefers 
to recall him. His writings on the " Foreign Relations of the 
British Empire," the "Natural Resources of Ireland"; his 
sketches ot Bushe, Paget, Bedford, Whitbread, Luke White, 
Barthelemy, Lord FitzGerald, William Orr Hamilton, and 
Feinaigh, but especially his dramatic criticisms, are always 
pleasant reading.* He had been a thinker almost from the 
cradle, and a philosopher in the nursery. In 1809 he was 
Auditor of the Historic Society. Dealing with History he used 
language which must have made MacNally wince} 

"Tremble the wretch who, in the mask of hypocrisy, hopes to 
deceive her searching eye, and escape the grave, eluding punish 
ment or evading detection ; let him tremble at the certainty that 
history at last plucks off the vizor of the villain, and that not even 
the tomb can afford concealment to guilt, or shelter to the guilty, 
when History is the prosecutor and Posterity the judge." 

It was not until Lord Anglesey became Viceroy that the 
services of this able man were recognised. The Waterloo 
veteran, in his distribution of patronage, when pressed by high 
interests on all sides, selected for promotion a man without 
such aids, and vindicated his labours from a long neglect. 
Finlay became Chairman for Roscommon, or, as it would now 
be called, County Court Judge. Moore s "Diary " records his 
intercourse with Finlay. Speaking to Moore of Irish history, 
he said : "The lies are bad and the truth still worse! " J 

* " Finlay s Miscellanies " were published by Gumming in 1836 
f Leonard MacNally, a popular barrister, who was associated with Finlay in 
various liberal movements. In " Secret Service under Pitt " extracts from his 
letters to the Irish Government were published, clearly showing him to be a spy. 
| Moore s "Diary," VII., p. 232. 



7 2 



HISTORY OF THE 










fHO OltO BTH MAY IB 

ACE08SYEARS 




JOHN FINLAY, LL.D. S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 73 

Publishers not a few rest at Glasnevin Grace, Duffy, 
Mullally, Powell, Kelly; but the earliest and oddest of the tribe 
was Richard Coyne. His solemn visage ; his long, sleek hair, 
and sacerdotal leggings, gave him a sanctimonious aspect, and 
marked the man as something between a puritan and a pres 
byter. " Peter," he was once heard to say to his assistant 
from a remote corner of his shop " have we any Confidence in 
God left?" O Connell, who overheard the question, was 
puzzled by it; but it may be here explained that Coyne named 
a book which had proved a financial success. The earlier meet 
ings of the Catholic Association had been held in Coyne s house.* 
Coyne survived until June ist, 1856. He did good work in his 
day. He was the iirst to introduce to the public the " Letters 
of J. K. L." written by the illustrious Bishop Doyle, whose 
statue, from the chisel of Hogan, is a noble work of art. 

John Hogan the Irish Canova was the next man of mark 
whose remains were laid in Glasnevin. His " Dead Christ"; 
his colossal statue of " O Connell" ; his " Cloncurry and Hiber- 
nia," "Brian Boroimhe," and the "Drunken Faun" are all 
triumphs of artistic skill, and it is on record that Thorwaldsen 
said, in reference to the last, and specially of the " Dead 
Christ," " Avete fatto in mivacolc? "As the procession ap 
proached Trinity College, the students, wearing academic cap 
and gown, and headed by some of the Fellows, issued two by 
two from the inner entrance, and lifting their caps as they 
passed the hearse, took up their position and headed the pro 
cession in its passage through the city." Hogan s mother, 
Frances Cox, was great-grand-daughter of Sir Richard Cox, 
the Chancellor ; but the family had been reduced by vicissi 
tude. John was a native of Waterford, and was patronised 
by a priest, who one day found to his surprise most exquisitely- 
carved designs on the legs of an old four-post bed, on which 
at night he used to stretch his wearied limbs. Friends raised 
some money to send young Hogan to Rome. Here he attained 
high rank as a sculptor, and married an Italian lady; but, 
like Goldsmith s hare, his gentle nature "panted to the spot 
from whence at first it flew," and he died in Dublin on March 
27th, 1858. The Committee placed at the service of his family 
the plot in which his ashes rest ! ; it remains for Ireland to 
raise a monument to his memory. 

* See page 3, ante 

t An interesting biography of Hogan, full and sparkling, from the pen of 
the late Mrs. Atkinson appeared in the Irish Quarterly Review for 1858. See 
also the Irish Monthly, Vol. II., p. 383. Dublin : Gill. 1874. 



74 HISTORY OF THE 

Major Nicholson, who died on March i5th, 1858, had pre 
viously erected a monument to his deceased wife on which he 
records : " She accompanied him in his campaigns to the East 
Indies and Cape of Good Hope ; St. Helena ; and was in Ant 
werp during the three days of Waterloo," where her husband 
had been engaged. 

The tomb of Lady Mary Hodges, in Curran s Circle, re 
cords her death on March 24, 1858; and subsequent interments 
in her vault include the remains of Madame Charlotte Aubrey, 
Charles Strickland, and members of the family of Mr. Com 
missioner Farrell. 

The funeral, on May 28th, 1858, of John O Connell the 
favourite son of the "Liberator" -was almost the largest 
which, up to that time, had journeyed to Glasnevin. In 1832 
he had entered Parliament for Youghal, and afterwards repre 
sented Athlone, Kilkenny, Limerick, and Clonmel. He died 
at the age of 47, having caught his death-illness when writing, 
in a damp, green bower, a paper for one of the quarterly re 
views. Like Barrett, he had been a State prisoner with the 
" Liberator," and is fully referred to by James Grant in " Ireland 
and the Irish." His " Recollections of a Parliamentary Career " 
(2 vols. : Colburne), were reviewed in the Quarterly by John 
Wilson Croker. He also wrote " The Repeal Dictionary " 
and "The Argument for Ireland," and brought out a collection 
of his father s speeches, connected by a silver thread of bio 
graphic comment, which, though fragile, is sometimes sparkling. 

Stephen Coppinger was amongst those who attended John 
O Connell s funeral ; on the following day he suddenly died. 
"He was a distinguished member of the old Catholic Associa 
tion," states his epitaph, " and was well known for his vigorous 
exertions in the cause of civil and religious liberty. He served 
his country with zeal and assiduity, not for sordid gain, but 
through pure and disinterested patriotism. He was respected 
and esteemed by all classes and creeds for his honourable inde 
pendence, uncompromising principles, and his many virtues." 
An allusion in the above is explained by the " History of the 
Coppingers": "In early life he was a great friend of O Con 
nell s ; but he carried an address to Washington against 
O Connell s opinion, at the Catholic Association, and from that 
time they ceased to be good friends." He (O Connell) nick 
named Stephen the " Knight of the Rueful Visage," and when 
he joined the Board of the Cemetery, Dan s remark was: "We 
should be grateful to Mr. Coppinger for lending us his coun- 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 75 

tenance." Thomas Wyse, who married the daughter of Lucien 
Buonaparte, sought Coppinger s help when writing his " His 
tory of the Catholic Association," and Stephen, observing in it 
a severe reference to Napoleon, exclaimed " Et tu, Brute! 1 
Stephen Coppinger had graduated in Trinity College, Dublin, 
and in 1815, joined the Irish Bar. A long account of him, 
with samples of the anecdotes of which he was full, appears 
in the Irish Quarterly Revieiv. He died on May 29th, 1858. 

John O Connell and Stephen Coppinger were soon followed 
by a man who had given, in other ways, useful help to the 
popular cause. Of Pat Costello many laughable anecdotes 
are recorded. Costello died on July loth, 1858, aged 68, and 
his tomb is near that of John Reynolds, whom, in rugged 
outline, he resembled. 

Another of O Connell s bodyguard followed Fergus 
Farrell, J.P., who had discharged the duties of Lord Mayor, 
and was a very useful and respected citizen, died October 29th, 
1858. 

Francis White, F.R.C.S., Inspector-General of Prisons, 
and afterwards Inspector of Lunatic Asylums, in Ireland, was 
an important man in his day. The apprentice of Abraham 
Colles, he established a hospital for diseases of the eye and 
an anatomical school ; was active during the cholera ; served 
as secretary to the Board of Health; wrote on tracheotomy 
and rupture, and gave valuable evidence before the Warburton 
Committee ; and was President of the College of Surgeons at 
a time when Catholics rarely succeeded to the post. He died 
on August i6th, 1859, from the effects of a railway accident 
near Waterford. 

On the loth November following, Annie wife of St. John 
Butler, and only child of Walter Arcedeckne Burke of Gortro- 
mona, County Galway, was buried. 

Terence J. Dolan, Clerk of the Crown for Tyrone and 
Chairman of the Rathmines Commissioners, had given to the 
Catholic Association valuable w r ork in his professional capacity 
as an attorney, and also to the Board of the Cemetery, of which 
he was an active member until his death, in December, 1859. 

Bishop Blake, whose interrupted ministration beside the 
grave of Mr. D Arcy led to the establishment of a Catholic 
Cemetery, had served for many years on its Board, died March 
6th, 1860. His life is an interesting fragment of ecclesiastical 
history. He made a special mission to Rome with the object 
of opposing the veto, and later on founded anew in the Eternal 



HISTORY OF THE 



City the Collegia Ivlandese. He revived the glory of the Irish 
College, presided as its Rector, and then came home to help 
m organising local charities and worthy enterprises. He 
never relinquished an asceticism of character which first 
showed itself as a schoolboy in always giving away his lunch 
to the poor. After the fast of Saturday had been abolished, 
he obtained from the Pope a rescript, dated 25th May, 1834 
by which an indulgence was gained by those who voluntarily 
abstained from flesh meat on Saturdays. While Vicar-General 
of Dublin the same spirit of vigour was shown. During his 
absence from Ireland Dr. Yore, an indulgent pastor, acted in 
his stead, and some people were known to contrast the cold 
Blake (bleak) nights unfavourably with the sunny days of 
Yore. Bishop Blake s remains rest in his Cathedral Church 
at Newry. 

O Connell s letters are loud in praise of the energy and intelli 
gence of William Ford, an attorney so genial that he went by the 
nickname of " Civil Bill " Ford. When the aged Liberator had 
been committed to prison for a period which few thought he could 
survive, Ford took charge of the proceedings on appeal to the 
House of Lords for a reversal of the judgment, and mirabile 
dictu I succeeded. Sir Gavan Duffy, one of O Connell s fellow- 
martyrs, as the State prisoners were described, writes : " Pale and 
panting, the aged attorney who had posted night and day from 
London with the record of the Lords judgment in his pocket, 
stumbled into the room, flung his arms round O Connell, and 
thanked God that his friend and leader was entitled to walk out of 
prison." The ovation that followed was memorable. There was 
no electric wire in those days, and Ford s race home with the news 
was an exciting one. When the express stopped at Chester he 
hastily announced to the passengers and porters that O Connell 
was going to get out. " Did you say it was at this station the 
gentleman would get out, sir?" asked a matter-of-fact porter. 
Ford, aged 69, died at Kilcairn, Navan, Co. Meath, and was 
buried at Glasnevin, 6th June, 1860. 

An Irishman of undoubted grit was Sir Edward McDonnell, 
the original chairman of the Great Southern and Western Railway 
of Ireland. In 1854, when war was declared against Russia, 
he happened to be Lord Mayor of Dublin, and his brilliant ball to 
the regiments which were ordered to the East, recalled the more 
impressive features of the Duke of Richmond s ball before Waterloo. 
Of those who danced in gay uniform at the Dublin ball, but few 
returned. The Great Southern trunk line, which owed so much 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



77 



to McDonnell s energy, was opened in 1849. His career of useful 
ness closed prematurely on November 22nd, 1860. He had been 
one of the governing body of the Cemetery and his tomb will be 
found in the O Connell Circle. 

Arthur Close, a very promising member of the Bar, died 
December 28th, 1860, aged 33. A tomb has been raised to him 
in the O Connell Circle, " in testimony of the talent, learning, and 
zeal which distinguished his career at the Bar. He was fast risino- 
to forensic eminence when his life became a sacrifice to the arduous 
duties of his profession." Close s tomb faces the vault of the 
wife of Chief Baron Palles, over which rises a beautiful statue in 
white marble by Sir Thomas Farrell, inscribed " Sursum Corda." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ON April 6, 1861, Dublin was agitated by a great tragedy. 
The Rathmines omnibus, heavily laden, was about to ascend 
Portobello Bridge, when the horses becoming restive, backed 
it against a wooden palisade which gave way, and the horses, 
vehicle, and inmates were hurled into the canal. The lock- 
keeper lost his head, and hoping to float the omnibus, let loose 
the volume of pent up water, which, of course, quite over 
whelmed it. A very beautiful girl, Matilda O Connell, with 
her mother, the wife of Charles O Connell, a near relative of 
" the Liberator," lost their lives. The Rev. John Kenyon, 
who had been a bitter opponent of O Connell, came up from 
Clare to attend this melancholy burial by the Oak Walk at 
Glasnevin. Another funeral entered the grounds at the same 
time that of Mr. Gunn father of the popular lessee of the 
Gaiety Theatre. He also perished in the accident at Porto 
bello Bridge. 

An entry in the Register, some days later, records the 
burial of Samuel Barker, who was burnt to death with ten 
others, in Patrick-street, Dublin, on April i5th, 1861. 

The 1 8th of November, 1861, was made remarkable in 
Dublin by the funeral procession of Terence Bellew MacManus, 
an ardent patriot of 48, of whose high qualities of head and 
heart Smith O Brien has left a vividly written estimate. He 
was tried for high treason and condemned to death, but the 



HISTORY OF THE 




LORD CHIEF BARON PALLES s MONUMENT., GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 79 

sentence was ultimately commuted to penal servitude, from 
which, however, he contrived to escape under circumstances of 
an exciting and somewhat romantic character. At one time 
a shipping agent of opulence in that great commercial centre 
Liverpool, he died a penniless exile amidst the gold fields 
of California. His remains were conveyed from Grass Valley 
to the greener sward he loved. Archbishop Cullen refused 
to allow the remains to lie in state in the Pro-Cathedral, but 
Father Lavelle attended from the diocese of Tuam, and pro 
nounced a funeral oration of some eloquence. 

In December, 1861, was buried Louisa Sarah Lady Bond, 
widow of Sir T. Lonsford Bond, Bart., of Coolamber, County 
Westmeath. The baronetcy a relic of the Irish Parliament 
is now extinct. The character of Lord Coolamber in Miss 
Edgeworth s novel, " The Absentee," is drawn from Bond, a 
near neighbour, whose idiosyncracy she carefully studied. 

In December of the same year, the Committee received the 
following letter from the Protestant Bishop of Limerick : 

" ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY, December 10th, 1 861 . 
" GENTLEMEN, 

" The death of Dr. John O Donovan, Professor of Celtic 
Literature, and author of many works, illustrating the History 
and Antiquities of Ireland, has caused a wide-spread feeling 
of sorrow. The event will be recognised as a national loss by 
all who are capable of estimating the value of the services 
which he has rendered to the literature of this country. I 
therefore beg leave to suggest that, if the rules of the Cemetery, 
which is under your management, permit of such an arrange 
ment, a free grant be made of ground for the purpose of his 
burial. The circumstances of his family unhappily render it 
desirable that such aid should be afforded to them, and even if 
this reason did not exist, I believe that your Committee would 
gladly avail themselves of an opportunity of doing honour to 
Dr. O Donovan s memory. 

" The Royal Irish Academy has not directed me to make a 
formal application to you on this subject. But I know that the 
suggestion which I have offered is in accordance with the 
feeling of a great number of its most distinguished members. 
I have the honour to be, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 
"CHARLES GRAVES, D.D., President, R.I. A." 

The members of the Cemeteries Committee thus addressed 
were only too glad of the opportunity afforded of marking the 



8o 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 8l 

respect and appreciation in which they held the memory of a 
distinguished scholar, who by his profound knowledge of the 
Celtic language and historical monuments of Ireland had ac 
quired European reputation. They offered space in whatever 
part of the Cemetery might be desired ; and a plot close to 
Hogan s tomb was eventually chosen. But a strange apathy 
succeeded the emotions of grief evoked by his death. For fifteen 
years no memorial marked the spot, and but for the exertions of 
Lord Talbot de Malahide, Sir Samuel Ferguson, John O Hagan, 
Dr. Ingram, Sir J. T. Gilbert and others, the neglect might 
have continued to this day. It has been told of O Donovan that 
" he had begun life full of hope in the resurgence of true Irish 
learning, trusting that the results of his exertions, while 
advancing the reputation of his country, would gain for himself 
somewhat of national gratitude and estimation." He died 
poor, and a friend muttered as regards the stone tardily given, 
Donovano* He was the father of Edmund O Donovan " the 
hero of Merv," author of "Travels and Adventures East of 
the Caspian." 

O Donovan s brother-in-law, Eugene O Curry hardly less 
gifted in the same field passed away a few months later, and 
was also buried at Glasnevin. The plot was granted free for 
the reception of his remains. Darcy McGee describes his long, 
oval, well-spanned head, and styles him the first of Celtic 
scholars and palaeographers. His funeral was attended by the 
members of the Royal Hibernian Academy with the Mace. 
O Curry died July 3oth, 1862. A valuable book has recently 
been published in which it is stated, "Above O Curry s faithful 
heart not even a name has been inscribed." This unfortu 
nately was the case until 1877 > but ^ n that year a beautiful 
Celtic cross was placed on his grave. 

St. Martin of Tours who divided his cloak with naked 
beggars, found his counterpart in the Rev. James Corr, Curate 
of St. Audeon s, a man of great holiness, whose life was devoted 
to the poor. A tombstone not far from the old entrance 
records that he died July i4th, 1862, aged 45. For a longtime 
after his death the poor loved to make pilgrimages to his grave. 

A munificent benefactor to his creed and kind followed on 
November i8th, 1862. John Donegan, the well-known Dublin 
jeweller, used to give every priest going on the foreign mission 

* This phrase, signifying "O vain gift/ is said to have been uttered by 
Gregory XVI. under different circumstances. 

G 



82 



HISTORY OF THE 




O CURRY S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 








JOHN DONEGAN S MONUMENT O CONNELL CIRCLE, 
GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



84 HISTORY OF THE 

a silver chalice, paten, and case for the holy oils ; and any Irish 
man who distinguished himself in the walk of practical 
patriotism received a gold watch. He assisted broken-down 
merchants and half-bankrupt shopkeepers. He gave thousands 
of pounds to All Hallows College a few months before his 
own death. He raised a monument at Ballinamore to the 
champion of his Church Father Tom Maguire. He gave to 
Armagh Cathedral chalices, monstrances and ciboriums set in 
diamonds. The good he did in private will never be known. 
A massive monument is raised to him in the O Connell circle. 

Not far from the grave of Richard O Gorman, who stood 
by O Connell at the duel -with D Esterre, rises an elaborately 
carved Celtic cross, dated 24th November, 1862. It is in 
scribed : " To the memory of Alexander M Donnell, 
F.R. C.S.I., of Ballinlig, in the Glens of Antrim ; a man of 
ancient and honourable lineage, and an accomplished physician, 
whose whole life was devoted to the service of the poor. This 
monument has been erected by a large number of friends who 
admired his rare virtues and lamented his early loss." On the 
panels of the shaft representations of the works of mercy are 
finely brought out. Dr. M Donnell belonged to the same 
family as D. M Donnell, the friend of Tone, so often mentioned 
by the historians of 98. The subject of the epitaph was 
brother of Colonel M Donnell, the son-in-law of Lord O Hagan. 

A monument of unusual height and grandeur in the Chapel 
circle records the death on December 3rd, 1862, of Sir Timothy 
O Brien, Bart., t\vice Lord Mayor of Dublin, who " represented 
Cashel in three Parliaments," and took an active part in the 
early management of the Cemetery. It was during the same 
year that a Senator of some mark and likelihood once was 
borne to Glasnevin ; but no stone is ever likely to mark his 
grave. Patrick Somers M.P. for Sligo, was a follower of 
O Connell, on whose fidelity the Tribune never failed to rely. 
For him another great man professed much regard Lord Pal- 
merston a proof that Somers mental qualities were above 
the average. " My friend Pat Somers " was at all times a 
welcome guest at Lord Palmerston s private residence now, in 
the whirligig of time, converted into a club. 

Another man who had sat in St. Stephens as M.P. for 
Wexford County James Fagan was borne from Turvey 
Hall, Donabate- the ancient home of the the Trimlestons 
on January I3th, 1896. Captain Magan represented West- 
meath at the same time ; and the door-keeper of the House of 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




DR. ALEXANDER M DONNELL s MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



86 HISTORY OF TH : 

Commons, confused by the pronunciation of both names, often 
accentuated Pagan s on the last syllable and Magan s on the first. 
He was a member of the Cemeteries Board, and took much 
interest in his work. A favourite avenue through the tombs 
is called Pagan s Walk. 

Patrick Harkan, son of Neil Harkan, of Raheen, County 
Roscommon, a landed proprietor, was sent to Rome in 1795, 
to pursue his studies for the priesthood ; but " humanities " 
had less attraction for him than the relief of suffering humanity, 
and he became a physician. In Dublin he acquired a large 
practice. His status is proved by the fact that in 1817, 
although a Roman Catholic, he was appointed by the some 
what exclusive Meath Hospital its physician. For forty years 
he filled the same post in the Fever Hospital, Cork Street. He 
lived for fully eight years at 40 Upper Sackville Street, where 
he died at this time. He was the brother of Peter Harkan, 
who, it will be remembered, came to grief on the wall of 
" Bully s Acre." 

Few of those who read of the burial, at Glasnevin, of 
Father Bartholomew Esmonde, S.J., on the i8th of December, 
1862, realised that he was a son of the Esmonde who figures in 
history as having headed, in 1798, a night attack on the 
Military barrack at Prosperous, and suffered execution. His 
son was one of four Irishmen who became priests on the restora 
tion of the Order under Pius VII., and, uplifting the banner of 
the Cross, fought the battle of the Faith in Ireland. He 
preached with the fervour of a Wesley, of whom Macauley 
says that, " had he (Wesley) been placed at Rome he is 
certain to have become the first general of a new society 
devoted to the interests and honour of the Church." At Clon- 
gowes are preserved copious notes by Esmonde for replying 
to the Evangelizers, who, in 1824, preached through Ireland 
with the object of effecting what was styled the Second 
Reformation. He resided for many years at Malta, where he 
published a polemic work well known at Rome. From long 
residence in Italy he became very familiar with the beauties 
of its temples : and the handsome church in Gardiner Street, 
Dublin, of which he was the architect, remains a monument 
of his genius and energy. This reflection will console his 
friends who fail to find at Glasnevin any monument over his 
grave. It may be interesting to add that a very rare and 
beautiful stone, known as the lapis lazuli, which imparts ad 
ditional beauty to the tabernacle at Gardiner Street Church, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 87 

was the gift of Major Sirr, the terrorist of 98, and who, in later 
days as the cartoons in " Cox s Magazine" shew was given 
to singing psalms and denouncing Jesuits. 

Old Martin Burke may thank W. M. Thackeray for a 
notoriety to which he did not himself aspire. In the " Irish 
Sketch Book" we read of a fashionable hotel frequented by 
the gentry, where the owner lived like one of the class he enter 
tained. When Mr. (afterwards Sir) Charles Gavan Duffy 
was put on his trial for the third time the jury having 
previously disagreed his Counsel discovering Burke s name 
on the panel, whispered to Duffy that, no doubt, he was put 
there because it was certain he would be swayed by the 
prejudices of the class by whom he lived. Burke, influenced 
by the oratory of Butt, took a resolute stand for Duffy. 
The fame which Thackeray had begun to weave for Burke 
was completed by Brougham. An angry speech which he 
delivered in the House of Lords, called the attention of 
England to the undisguised partiality manifested by Burke in 
the jury box. The latter retorted in a public letter full 
of indignant warmth. Burke, who was the father of J. Milo 
Burke, D.L., and the grandfather of Martin Burke, Q.C., 
died on the i6th of January, 1863. He is described on his 
tomb as Martin Burke of the Shelbourne Hotel, and Spring 
field House, County Tipperary : " A good Christian ; a 
fearless patriot ; an independent juryman; and a true-hearted 
Irishman." 

A long account of Captain O Brien, " Father of Irish 
Coursing," appears in the newspapers of the day. He died 
on February 27th, 1863. 

Gallagher was a well-known ventriloquist and entertainer. 
Among his exploits off the stage was an oral appeal for help, 
seemingly from a sewer, which caused the street to be ripped 
up in the humane attempt to rescue an unseen sufferer. Poor 
Gallagher thy voice is not heard from the ground now ! He 
proved a very popular ventriloquist and dramatic student. 
He drew good houses : and a well-posted cartoon of himself 
which always heralded his advent hat in hand, and bowing 
with an obsequiousness worthy of Sir Pertinax MacSycophant, 
remains in the memory of many. He was the father of an 
able journalist, and the grandsire of another to whose memory 
a tomb has been raised by public subscription. Gallagher 
himself died 7th April, 1863. Born in January, 1800, he 
humourously claimed to be one of the first men of the century. 



HISTORY OF THE 

A monument near the old entrance, recalls a not uninterest 
ing personality : " Sacred to the memory of William Dillon 
Walker, who fell at the battle of the Wilderness, in America, 
on the 5th May, 1863, combating for the restoration of the 
Great Republic of the United States. In the Italian war of 
1860 he gallantly took up arms with the Irish section of the 
Papal Brigade in defence of the Chair of St. Peter, and earned 
for himself laurels which were publicly acknowledged by Pope 
Pius IX. in electing and proclaiming him Knight of the Order 
of St. Sylvester." 

There are few pictures better known than that of Curran 
by Sir Thomas Laurence, with the sparkling black eyes and 
speaking features. Its strength was reproduced with great 
skill by the sculptor, Christopher Moore, R.H.A.,* and visitors 
to St. Patrick s Cathedral, Dublin, are struck by that work of 
art. " It is the finest monument, so simply made, I ever saw," 
writes Thomas Davis, " Let the reader look at it when the 
setting sun comes upon it, and he will recognise lineaments of 
power." He adds that " it is most like him in his glorified 
mood full of thought and action." The hand that guided 
the successful chisel now rests at Glasnevin. Moore died on 
the 1 1 th of February, 1864, in Upper Pembroke Street, and 
within a few doors of Surgeon Leonard Trant, who some days 
later followed him to Glasnevin. The obituary memoirs point 
to Trant as a past president of his college, and surgeon to Cork 
Street Fever Hospital ; as a highly distinguished member 
of the profession. | 

Two days after Moore s a remarkable cortege arrived. It 
was the funeral of the Right Rev. Dr. Yore, V.G., whose 
name has been already mentioned as a zealous labourer in the 
establishment of a Catholic Cemetery. A relic of penal days, 

* Christopher Moore had won distinction in modelling busts that of Sheil 
was a marked success but the Committee who returned to him the statue of 
Thomas Moore were ignorant of the fact that statues belonged to an entirely 
distinct branch of art, requiring special early training in "the life school," 
and a diligent study of the antique. Moore had executed a bust of Francis 
Earl of Charlemont, which gave that nobleman such satisfaction, that he offered 
to double his subscription to the proposed statue of Thomas Moore if Christopher 
were selected as its sculptor. The Committtee met at Charlemont House 
under the presidency of the patriot peer, whose suggestion was readily ac 
cepted. The statue disappointed Moore s admirers, and it was dryly sug 
gested that the inscription beneath it should be " Blame not the Bard." 

t A Memoir of Trant appears in Sir Charles Cameron s History of the 
College of Surgeons, p. 403. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 89 

his long career had been one continuous virtue, exhibiting itself 
in endless variety. Early in life the youthful Yore attracted 
the attention of the famous Father Gahan, who, not less struck 
than charmed by his promise, took him to reside with him at 
John s Lane Convent. In 1800 the youth proceeded to Carlow 
College to pursue his studies for the priesthood. On receiving 
ordination he was appointed to the chaplaincy of Kilmainham 
Prison, under Dean Luby, P.P. of St. James s. The young 
priest, in the discharge of his duties, had to witness the most 
harrowing and revolting scenes at the numerous executions at 
which his presence with the condemned was necessary, at a 
time when death was the penalty of many minor offences. 
Two girls, sentenced to be hanged received his ministration, 
and he described, long years after, the shock he experienced 
when, emerging from a dungeon into the broad light of day, 
he saw a sea of faces surging beneath the drop. On being 
appointed pastor of St. Paul s he found the chapel hidden 
away in a wretched lane, but soon succeeded in obtaining a 
site on Arran Quay, where the new church now stands. The 
steeple, crowned by the cross, rapidly shot up : and Dr. Yore 
erected within it the first peal of bells that, since the Reforma 
tion, were allowed to sound their iron tongues in thanksgiving. 
In his new enterprise he was generously assisted by Protestants. 
Lord Clifden gave the ground, and Mr. Robinson, brother of 
Joseph Robinson, Doctor of Music, insisted on supplying the 
ornamental railings and gates.* In consequence of his repre 
sentation to the Crown that justice had not been done to 
Catholic soldiers, chaplains of their Church were appointed, 
and, by the regimental rules, the men were marched to their 
place of worship on Sundays, just as Protestant soldiers were 
marched to theirs. When the troops were about to embark for 
the Crimea, St. Paul s presented an animated scene. The 
long red lines of kneeling soldiers as they received the Holy 
Sacrament at the hands of Dr. Yore, was in itself a touching 
spectacle ; but when it was known, as it now is known, that 
most of them were destined never to return, the retrospect 
becomes still more touching. This is not the place to record 
all the good he did whether in founding blind asylums, insti 
tutions for the deaf and dumb, or orphanages. He gave to the 



* Mr. Robinson, who owned the Royal Phoenix Iron Works, was famous as 
a singer, and acquired the sobriquet of "The Harmonious Blacksmith 1 
alluding, of course, to Handel s grand composition. 



HISTORY OF THE 








VERY REV. MONSIGNOR YORE, P.P., V.G/S MONUMENT, 
GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 9 1 

Vincentian Fathers a chapel-ot-ease he had built at Phibs- 
borough. In fact he was ever ready to respond, like Abraham, 
"Here I am." To feed his orphans and his blind he sold his 
valuable library, as well as the carriage and horses with which 
he had been presented. A minute of the proceedings of the 
Cemetery Board records, September 6th, 1864 : " In grateful 
recognition of the inestimable public services and exalted 
character of the late venerated Dr. Yore the good priest, 
the ever active, bat unostentatious patriot, and the unwearied 
and indefatigable benefactor of the helpless and the poor- 
this Committee shall, out of the funds at its disposal, erect a 
suitable monument over his grave in Glasnevin." This monu 
ment will be found close to that of Tom Steele, who, as " Head 
Pacificator" in turbulent times, had co-operated with Dr. Yore. 
A brief inscription on the monument of Captain Leyne, R.M., 
in the Curran Section, fails to record some not uninteresting 
services. Richard Leyne, eldest son of Maurice Leyne, M.D., 
of Tralee, Co. Kerry, by Agnes, daughter of The MacGillycuddy 
of the Reeks, joined the 73rd Regiment in 1809, at Perth, 
bringing with him 400 recruits from the Kerry Militia. It 
was then commanded by the subsequent General, Sir Maurice 
O Connell, a second cousin of " The Liberator." The regiment 
was sent soon after to Sydney to suppress a mutiny there, and 
Lieutenant Leyne, after serving for some years in New South 
Wales, returned to Europe and joined the second Battalion of 
his regiment, which, upon Napoleon s escape from Elba, was 
ordered to the scene of war. Leyne liked to tell of the Duchess 
of Richmond s Ball ; of the march to Waterloo through the 
Forest of Loynes ; of the death of the Duke of Brunswick at 
the head of his black cavalry ; of the flight of the Belgians 
early in the day ! * Captain Leyne obtained his company on 
the field, and his regiment suffered so severely, that fourteen 
officers, senior to him, were placed hoys de combat. The regiment 
was almost literally mown down by French cannon, the disaster 
at Balaclava being only more remarkable from the commemo 
ration it has received. " At the close of the battle," records 
the Waterloo Roll Call, " only fifty wounded men of the 73rd 
were left out of a total of 600 men."! The command of the 

* He would tell, too, of one Paddy Murphy of his corps, who, after Quatre 
Bras, was suddenly seen on top of a wall with a struggling goat round his neck 
like a fur boa. This he had grasped by the legs in front, and sought to keep 
steady, while a volley of oaths in Irish fell from his lips. Wellington usually 
repressed with sternnesss any attempt to loot ; but Murphy cut such a comical 
figure that, in this instance, he laughed heartily. 

f Dalton s Waterloo Roll Call : London, 1890. 



Q2 HISTORY OF THE 

survivors devolved on Captain Leyne, who retained it during 
the march of the Allies from Brussels to Paris, and for some 
months after while the British army bivouacked in the Champs 
Elysees, and subsequently at Boulogne. Before embarking for 
England in November, 1815, Wellington complimented him on 
the discipline enforced upon the troops under his command. 
O Keefe, in his "Life of O Connell " (ii. p. 547), describes 
Leyne as officially present at the Tithe battle at Carrickshock 
but incorrectly : for Leyne did not become a Resident 
Magistrate until 1838. His letters to Daniel O Connell, of 
whom he was a kinsman, appear in the " Private Correspon 
dence " of the latter. Leyne died January 3rd, 1864, aged 74. 
His son succeeded Sir de Lacy Evans in command of the 
British Legion in Spain, and died President of the Legislative 
Council of Queensland. 

An influential leader of the Munster Circuit was Christopher 
Coppinger, Q.C., afterwards Chairman of Kildare, and subse 
quently of Kerry. He was the person chiefly instrumental in 
promoting the passing of the Act of 1851 (14 & 15 Vic., c. 57), 
which consolidated and amended the whole Irish County Court 
Code : greatly enlarging the jurisdiction ; abolishing the old 
system of paying the judge by fees; and, in other respects, gener 
ally improving his position. Mr. Coppinger received a valuable 
presentation of plate from his brother assistant Barristers now 
known as County Court Judges in recognition of his services, 
and the Bill itself is said to have been drafted by him. In 
1858 he published a law book of considerable authority, but 
he did not long live to enjoy the kudos it brought him.* 
He died March 2gth, 1864, aged 57. Coppinger was a sound 
lawyer, and a vigorous speaker ; but he once made a bull, for 
which he was much chaffed. After some exuberant vocabu 
lary he added : " My lord, are we to live, like the birds in 
the bushes from hand to mouth ? " 

" Lord, have mercy on the soul of Patrick Vincent Fitz- 
Patrick. 1865." is inscribed on a Celtic cross in the old 
O Connell Circle, and claims a responsive prayer. He was 
Chancellor of the Exchequer to " The uncrowned monarch of 
Ireland" in other words, he organised the O Connell tribute 
and the many letters addressed to him in the " Private 

* " Law and Practice of the County Courts in Ireland in Civil, Testamentary 
and Insolvency Cases, with their Jurisdiction in Appeals, Civil and Criminal ; 
also, the Law relating to the Duties of Justices of the Peace in and out of 
Quarter Sessions, &c." An able effort to bring this work up to date has been 
made in the book now known as " Dixon s Carleton." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 93 

Correspondence " of the Liberator, show the importance of 
his help. To the public Vincent FitzPatrick never appeared 
in any capacity other than that of an able financier ; for the 
strife of the political arena he was by nature unfitted. From 
the year 1846 he filled the post of Assistant Registrar of Deeds. 
Happily his post was a sinecure, and thus he was able to 
brighten many a home and charm troops of friends at the 
dinner-table or fireside by his store of brilliant anecdote and 
quiver of brisk impromptus. His gaiety of heart was infectious 
and refreshing ; his facetia, never barbed by malice or made 
hurtful by sarcasm, are remembered as the characteristics of 
the man, and will long recall him to the fond memory of many. 
He continued to the last to recreate himself with poetic 
efforts, showing no little culture. 

John Fisher Murray is described by Sir Charles Gavan 
Duffy as "Tall and dark a man of vigorous physique and 
vigorous ability, akin to Swift s." He died in London, October 
2oth, 1865, but is buried at Glasnevin in the South Section, 
beneath a remarkable monument and epitaph. He wrote a 
clever novel called " The Viceroy," in which the intrigues and 
tinsel of what he considered a sham Court are vividly described. 
The Right Hon. Anthony Blake, a distinguished member of the 
Backstairs Cabinet, and a pious Catholic, is introduced as 
Snake, with other public men who, long since, have been 
raised to an Upper House not made with hands. Murray wrote 
for Blackwood under the supervision of Christopher North. He 
also produced " The Environs of London," 1841 ; " The World 
of London," 2 vols., 1843 ; " New Series," 1845 ; and " Pic 
turesque Tour of the Thames," 1845. As regards the latter, 
we learn from Mr. Ed. Allibone that it is " an extremely 
beautiful and interesting volume, full of entertaining anecdotes 
and descriptions, and illustrated by a profusion of exquisite 
engravings. Fisher Murray had been greatly attached to his 
wife " the dear partner of his cares and joys." 

" My happy home, in thy confiding breast 
Where my worn spirit refuge found and rest." 

The last stanza of eight sings : 

"Oh ! mayest thou, if permitted, from above 

The starry sphere, 
Encompass me with ever-during love, 

As thou didst here : 
Still be my guardian spirit, lest I be 

Unworthy thee ; 

Still, as on earth, thy grace celestial give, 
So guide rny life as thou wouldst have me live," 



94 



HISTORY OF THE 




PATRICK VINCENT FITZPATRICK s MONUMENT AND VAULT, 
O CONNELL CIRCLE, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 95 

The inscription on Murray s monument informs us that it was 
" Erected by Hannah Murray in memory of her beloved 
husband, John Fisher Murray, born February nth, 1811." 
On the right side of monument is inscribed : 

" An honorable life, hard pressed 

By sore temptation ; yet maintained 
The conscious virtue of the breast, 
The narrow, thorny path retained." 

On the left side : 

" A simple life, an honest heart, 

A cheerful, hospitable grace, 
Courage to act a manly part ; 
Spirit to feel for human race." 

And on the back : 

" What now shall cheer the dreadful day, 

What now irradiate the gloom, 
Accompany in death s dark way, 
Contented lead us to the tomb ? " 

The tomb of a policeman who, as it announces, was 
assassinated in the discharge of his duty, on April 29th, 1866, 
is coffin shaped and striking. His colleagues of the force 
raised it by their united contributions ; but the red and black 
letters in which his fate is recorded, is not, perhaps, in the 
best taste. It was sharply criticised by Mr. Sullivan, M.P., 
who described it as a stone edition of the " Hue and Cry." 

John Blake Dillon : " One of the most gentle of men ; yet a 
patriot of great energy and deliberation, his memory shall long 
be green in the land to which he gave the services of a warm 
heart and finely cultivated mind." Thus spoke T. D. Sullivan 
himself a man of much culture in dealing with John Dillon, 
M.P. for Tipperary. When studying for the priesthood at 
Maynooth, he found that his vocation lay elsewhere, and 
entering Trinity College, where he became auditor of the 
Historical Society, he formed a friendship for Davis, after 
wards a chief in the party of Young Ireland. He helped to 
establish the "Nation" newspaper; joined the bar; and with 
O Connell, raised the standard of Repeal. Though opposed to 
physical force, he felt in honour bound not to desert his attached 
friend Smith O Brien in 1848. From the Islands of Arran he 
escaped to France, and thence to America, where he was ad- 



96 HISTORY OF THE 

mitted to practise in the New York courts. Returning to 
Ireland, he sacrificed popularity by a consistent denunciation 
of the Fenian League. The fulness of his knowledge always 
secured him an attentive hearing in Parliament ; but suddenly 
that tall and stately figure was laid low, and in September, 
1866, his remains were consigned to Glasnevin Cemetery, of 
which he had been one of the governing body. 

Prime Sergeant Sir John Howley belonged to that type of 
barrister whose epitaph, " a sound lawyer and an honest 
man," drew from a cynical visitor the comment : "I wonder 
why two men were buried together." Howley a most 
estimable and philanthropic person presided as Chairman of 
Quarter Sessions for Tipperary during the eventful period 
covered from 1835 to 1865. His funeral cortege entered Glas 
nevin Cemetery on February 2nd, 1866. 

A monument in the Garden Section, bearing date 3Oth 
January, 1866 : " To Normeender Horan, great grand-daughter 
of James, commonly called the last Earl of Desmond," recalls 
memories of a race whose career is interwoven with some 
stirring episodes. 



CHAPTER IX. 

ONE day, during the autumn of 1866, the Committee were 
surprised to receive from the quarters of the 92nd Highlanders, 
the following letter : 

" R. E. OFFICE, DUBLIN CASTLE, 29th August, 1866. 
" SIR Being given to understand that the Cemetery ad 
joining Richmond Barracks is under your jurisdiction, I have 
the honor to request you will inform me whether any and 
what steps you could take to render it less obnoxious to the 
troops quartered in the barracks whether it can at least for 
the present be closed, or if not, that interments may be made 
as far from the barrack as the nature of the ground will 
admit of. I have the honor to be, sir, &c., 

" F. MACBEAN, Major, 92nd Highlanders, 

" President Sanitary Committee." 

This missive the secretary briefly acknowledged, saying that 
it would be submitted on the 4th of the ensuing month to a 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



97 




SIR TIMOTHY O BRIEN S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 

H 



9 HISTORY OF THE 

General Board of the governing body. The following letter 
was the result : 

11 CATHOLIC CEMETERIES OFFICE, 7, LOWER ORMOND QUAY, 

" 5th September, 1866. 

"SiR In reference to your communication of the 2gth ultimo, 
I have the honor to inform you that the Cemetery at Golden 
Bridge cannot be closed, as it is established under special Act 
of Parliament, and that the governing body are not aware of 
any sanitary inconvenience that has arisen from it. I am to 
add, that the majority of the interments are made in the portion 
of the Cemetery most remote from the Richmond Barracks, 
and that a sub-committee from this Board visit the Cemetery 
once each month, to take into consideration any complaints 
that may be made in connection with it. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, &c., 

" C. COYLE, Registrar. 

" Major F. Macbean, Q2nd Highlanders, &c." 

But, as the sequel will show, O Connell was not the only man 
who could drive a coach-and-six through an Act of Parliament. 
From the day Glasnevin opened in 1832, the burials at Golden 
Bridge had enormously decreased, but they were yet sufficiently 
numerous to perturb Major Macbean. 

General McMurdo is next found moving. 

" SOUTH DUBLIN UNION, 
" CLERK S OFFICE, BOARD ROOM, JAMES S STREET, 

" 17th day of October, 1866. 

" SIR, By direction of the Board of Guardians of this 
Union I send you enclosed copies of communications received 
from General McMurdo on the subject of a nuisance arising 
from Richmond Cemetery, and they request the immediate 
attention of the Cemeteries Committee thereto. 
" I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

" GEORGE HEPBURN, Clerk of the Union." 

In a document enclosed by Mr. Hepburn, the following passage 
occurs : " It appears to General McMurdo that the Cemetery 
itself ought no longer to be used for burials, and he invites the 
serious attention of the Board to the subject. The grouud 
being higher than the canal, from which the poor obtain their 
supply of water, the evil is obvious." This point, as will be 
shewn, was utterly untenable, and will be found dealt with 
later on. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 99 

In January, 1868, General Sir Thomas Larcom, the Under 
Secretary for Ireland, wrote, by direction of the Lord Lieutenant, 
stating that, in consequence of an application from the War 
Office to close Golden Bridge Cemetery, " Dr. Hill made a 
careful investigation of its condition," and a letter was enclosed 
from General Lord Longford, Under Secretary of War, urging 
"that such measures should be taken as Lord Abercorn may be 
advised to close the Cemetery to all future interments." The 
report furnished by Dr. Hill, the official Inspector on behalf of 
the Poor Law Commissioners a body now represented by the 
Local Government Board goes on to say: " The Cemetery 
is situated at the back of Richmond Barracks, from which it 
is separated by a road of moderate width, and is in the im 
mediate vicinity of the populous village of Golden Bridge. It 
contains an area of about 3 statute acres, tastefully laid out 
and well kept, the whole being surrounded by a high wall. 
Some portions of the grounds are evidently well filled, and are 
above the level of the adjoining barracks, but in other parts 
there appears to be a considerable extent of unoccupied space, 
and, according to the Registrar, there is yet room for some 
thousands of graves. The Cemetery was opened in 1829, and 
up to the 3ist ultimo 26,265 interments had taken place in it. 
Of late years, since the opening of another Cemetery at Glas- 
nevin, the number of burials has decreased, and the present 
average is about 300 annually. I was informed by the Registrar 
that the ground is well drained, but I believe that the drainage 
flows into a sewer passing from the barracks to the river Camac. 
As regards the condition of this burial-ground, 1 observe 
nothing calling for unfavourable remark " but he added that 
" its position so close to the barracks was objectionable." 
And as regards the sewer, Dr. Hill adds in a subsequent letter, 
dated 3oth September, 1867 : " This arrangement was carried 
out some years since with the consent of the military authori 
ties." 

Gsneral Lord Longford, the War Secretary, in a letter 
dated August loth, 1867, gave prominence to a bold statement. 
Writing to General Sir T. Larcom, who, in point of fact, was 
the Government of Ireland, he goes on to say : " It is stated 
that this Cemetery is situated in the midst of a populous dis 
trict, and is so overcharged with bodies that the surface is 
much raised above the level of the ground in the vicinity, and 
that, consequently, the drainage from it is liable to impregnate 
the water in the neighbouring tanks." gftl I CHRIST! 

BIK. *AJ, 



IOO HISTORY OF THE 

Sir Charles Cameron visited Golden Bridge, and wrote a 
report, dated 24th March, 1868, the pith of which, in justice to 
the Cemeteries Committee, ought not to be ignored : " I have 
made a careful inspection of the Cemetery at Golden Bridge. 
The grounds appeared to me to evidence great care on the part 
of those persons entrusted with the charge of them. The walks 
were very clean, and in no part of the Cemetery did I observe 
decomposing vegetable matter or filth of any kind of course I 
refer to the surface of the ground. The soil is covered with 
grass, which, at the time of my visits, the iyth and 24th March, 
was healthy and luxuriant. I also observed numerous trees 
and shrubs, w r hich exhibited all the appearances indicative of 
healthy vitality. The soil appeared to be dry, and I am 
informed that the drainage of the ground is secured by means 
of two deep cuts, which, after nearly encircling the Cemetery, 
meet near the entrance. So far as I could judge with the eye, 
the level, at the lowest part of the Cemetery, is not more than 
two feet below the level or surface of the highest portion." 

Doctor Mapother had also reported, under date, March loth, 
1868: "At the request of the Committee I this day visited 
the Golden Bridge Cemetery for the purpose of reporting on its 
condition, and expressing my opinion whether it could affect 
injuriously the health of the inmates of the Richmond Barracks 
or the adjoining township. A cemetery may be hurtful to 
those living around in three ways. First By polluting water 
supply. I am informed that the water for the barracks is 
derived from the Grand Canal immediately adjoining. Soakage 
from the Cemetery cannot find its way into this canal, as the 
surface of its water is at least eight feet above the surface of 
the Cemetery which slopes from the edge next the canal 
towards the northern side. A ditch, varying from six to ten 
feet, lies between the wall of the Cemetery and the canal, and 
as it was perfectly dry it seems that the canal bank is staunch. 
Second By soakage through the walls and floors of their 
houses. I saw no evidence of soakage towards the barracks, 
the northern wall of the Cemetery appearing sound and dry 
below the level of the Cemetery ground. I saw two grave- 
spaces open to the depth of three feet, and the earth seemed 
to me dry and well charged with vegetable matter, conditions 
which indicate that the soil is well drained and suitable for 
promoting decomposition of bodies, facts further proved by 
the very luxuriant growth of trees and grass. Third by 
effluvia given off from the decomposing bodies. I do not think 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES IOI 

that there is any escape of effluvia into the air from this Ceme 
tery, as the earth is of the character just described, and would 
therefore absorb it as the interments appear to be carefully 
performed, three feet of earth at least covering each coffin. 

Indignation meetings, to protest against the action of the 
military authorities, were held at Inchicore, and are fully re 
ported in the papers of the day. The amusing rhetorical 
statement was made by one speaker, namely, " that the troops 
wanted to make a parade ground of the Cemetery." One 
thing, at least, seemed fairly evident that its doom had been 
already decreed by the War Office. 

The Dublin Gazette of June 9th, 1868, contained a Proclama 
tion in which the representations made to the Lords Justices by 
the Military secretary to the General commanding the forces in 
Ireland, and by the Secretary of State for War, were set forth 
followed by the intimation that : "All parties having any objections 
to the proposed order for closing the said burial-ground are hereby 
informed that they are at liberty to appear before the Privy Council 
in support of their objections, either personally, or by counsel, on 
the fifteenth day of July next." 

The Right Hon. Abraham Brewster, who was then Lord 
Chancellor, presided. Some good points were made for the 
defence, but the result was a foregone conclusion. The Privy 
Council strengthened its order by an imposing array of names, the 
owners of which have all since joined the majority. They formally 
limited future interments to all those who had acquired rights of 
burial by purchase, or had relatives already entombed at Golden 
Bridge Cemetery. To a cruel law or usage it owed its origin ; and 
by a harsh edict its uses as a Cemetery practically ceased. 

The virtual closing of Golden Bridge Cemetery might be re 
gretted perhaps on other grounds. Though nominally a Catholic 
burial place, it had thrown open its gates since 1829 to the remains 
of other sects, whose clergy were free to perform in the grounds 
whatsoever religious rites they desired. 



102 HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTER X. 

ONE of the heaviest years for burials was 1867, during the 
cholera epidemic, when in the month of January alone, 969 
bodies were given to the earth. Opposite the wicket on the 
Finglas Road, is a large green plot containing the bones of those 
who perished in that visitation, and close to the Old Entrance 
is a similar plot, in which lie the victims of the smallpox of 1872. 

William Dargan, having contracted successfully for some 
of the chief Boards of Ireland, was entrusted with the con 
struction of the leading railway lines : by which means he 
amassed a large fortune. The success of the great Exhibition 
under Paxton, at Hyde Park in 1851, led Dargan to think that 
Ireland ought to go and do likewise. He accepted the financial 
risk of the Dublin Industrial Exhibition of 1853, and cheerfully 
bore the deficit of i 0,000, which resulted from the enterprise. 
It was formally opened by the Queen. One day like Peel 
and Bishop Wilberforce -he w r as thrown from his horse, and 
from the effects of this fall, and the collapse of his financial 
gains, he died, crushed in mind and body, February 7th, 1867. 
His funeral to Glasnevin Cemetery was a solemn spectacle. 
His statue in Merrion Square, at the threshold of the National 
Gallery, is a familiar and striking object. His former residence 
near Sybil Hill, Raheny, serves to recall his first enterprise 
the construction of the high road from Dublin to Howth. The 
plot in which his remains rest was a free grant by the Ceme 
teries Committee. 

Sir Christopher Bellew, Bart., became a Jesuit father, and 
in a cell of his ascetic order, sought a complete union with 
God. He brought sinners to repentance by conducting mis 
sions through the country, and on March i8th, 1867, was called 
to his reward. His brother Michael, also a Jesuit father, 
followed him within the ensuing year. 

A man famous for the silent patriotism of his life, w T as John 
Dalton, author of " King James s Irish Army List," "Annals 
of Boyle," " History of the County Dublin," " History of 
Dundalk," and " Lives of the Archbishops of Dublin." At an 
earlier period of his career he had compiled 200 volumes, still 
unpublished, embodying extracts from MSS. rare of access 
historical, topographical, and genealogical. Dalton almost 
said with Prospero : 

" Deeper than did ever plummet sound 
I ll drown my books." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



I0 3 




104 HISTORY OF THE 

He omitted to bequeath them to any public library, where their 
great value could be utilised by historic inquirers ; but, happily, 
they still exist, fully indexed, and it is hoped may be yet ex 
humed from the dust and darkness in which they lie. Dalton 
was a graduate of Trinity College, and a member of the Bar, at 
which, however, he never practised. Throughout a long life 
he rarely left his desk. He was buried in Glasnevin on Janu 
ary 23rd, 1867. 

Ralph Walsh, one of O Connell s Old Guard, a staunch 
friend to Catholic charities, and the father of William J., 
Archbishop of Dublin, was buried in the Dublin Section on 
April 2oth 1867, aged 64. 

The Most Rev. Daniel O Connor, Bishop of Saldes, and 
Vicar- Apostolic of Madras, was buried on Jaly loth, 1867. 
Some of the most interesting letters of Dr. Doyle (J.K.L.), were 
addressed to Dr. O Connor. When Wellington brought for 
ward his bill of Catholic Emancipation, it included a clause in 
which the extinction of the Monastic Orders in Ireland was 
formally threatened. O Connor, himself a friar, was the chief 
negotiator who, in April, 1829, waited on Wellington and Peel, 
when he obtained an assurance that the clause in reference to 
the regular clergy could only be enforced by the Attorney 
General, which action, they believed, would never be taken. 
The obnoxious clause, in point of fact, had been introduced 
solely to appease the demon of bigotry. Dr. O Connor was 
the first British-born subject that ever became a bishop in 
British India. Madras was then a truly destitute mission. 
With a large staff of priests and students, and several thousands 
of books for the instruction of the ignorant, he arrived in 
Madras in August, 1835. 

Michael Murphy, the well-known Official Assignee of the 
Court of Bankruptcy, was buried on October 2ist, 1867. " His 
urbane and courteous nature, no less than his honourable 
spirit," writes Sir John Gray, " rendered him peculiarly adap 
ted for the discharge of his important duties." 

In 1759 the Catholics who suffered from the effects of the 
violated Treaty of Limerick, petitioned for relief through 
Thomas Wyse, Dr. Curry, and Charles O Conor. Thomas 
held office under successive administrations ; George became a 
police magistrate. The latter was born at the Manor of St. 
John, Waterford, in 1793. His father, as representative of the 
original grantee, in 1172, inherited the rights of the Prior of 
St. John, and was, in that capacity still subject to visitations of 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 105 

the Lord Bishop of the Diocese. George Wyse, it was known, 
had helped his brother in compiling the " History of the Catholic 
Association." He died November 4th, 1867. 

Martin Crean is described as seated with O Connell at 
dinner at Richmond Bridewell when the Governor of the gaol, 
much agitated, rushed into the room saying, " Good God, can 
it be true ? " The Liberator was liberated. Mr. Crean had 
been the efficient acting secretary of the Repeal Association, 
and a staunch disciple of O Connell. He died on December 3rd, 
1867, aged 65, and was buried at Glasnevin in a plot granted 
free by the Catholic Cemeteries Committee to his widow. 

Mathias O Kelly, an old member of the Board, died on 
5th April, 1868, greatly regretted by his colleagues. He 
largely helped in founding the Cemetery at Golden Bridge, 
while that at Glasnevin owed much to his fostering hand. He 
had been Secretary to the Board and took a keen interest in 
his work. It will be remembered that in 1847 he left Ireland on 
the special mission of accompanying from Genoa the remains 
of O Connell, over which now towers that wonderful monument 
so familiar to visitors to Ireland. O Kelly s services to the 
Zoological Society were valuable and long continued. He 
watched over its interests from its origin to a period within a 
few weeks of his decease. So far back as 1837 I find the 
following tribute to him uttered by the then President of the 
Zoological Society, General Portlock " He found on the list 
the name of Mr. M. J. O Kelly, than whom no one could be 
better calculated to benefit the society by his assistance in the 
council. Perhaps he was better known to those with whom 
he had co-operated than to the public at large. There was 
not in the country a better collector of zoological subjects, or 
one who, by his knowledge of natural history, and his attention 
to the interests of the society, was likely to be practically so 
useful a member of the council." O Kelly had been, at one 
time, Secretary to the Catholic Association, and was ever 
hailed by O Connell as a dear friend and a valued co-operator. 
His son, Joseph O Kelly, geologist, of whom a laudatory 
memoir appeared in the Athemeum of the day, is also buried 
at Glasnevin. 

The next important funeral to come was that of John 
Lanigan, M.P. for Cashel, an old ally of O Connell, who died 
October 7th, 1868. 

John Reynolds, another follower of O Connell, and his 
imitator in voice and vehemence, obtained some fame as an 



T 6 HISTORY OF THE 

oratorical bruiser. Though both fought under O Connell s 
standard, no man could be more unlike the suave O Kelly than 
John Reynolds. By steady steps Reynolds fought his way to 
the front. He was among the first Catholic Lord Mayors of 
Dublin, and he won a Parliamentary seat for that city at a 
time when Orangeism regarded it as its special stronghold. 
At St. Stephen s he had sufficient tact to hold in check the 
aggressiveness of his nature. Contemporary memoirs described 
him as an excellent speaker, bristling with points, a master of 
detail, but deficient in the sagacity of a statesman. Mr. 
Ingram, M.P. published his portrait in the Illustrated London 
News. The House liked him, and was sorry when he left it. 
He was a member of the Committee of Glasnevin Cemetery 
from the outset. On August 24th, 1868, his remains were 
conveyed to Glasnevin. Ere long the spot was marked by a 
fine monument, "Erected," as the inscription states, "by his 
fellow citizens in recognition of long public services discharged 
with marked ability and energy." 

His brother, Thomas Reynolds, City Marshal, also rests at 
Glasnevin. He helped to fight the battle of civil and religious 
liberty, and was prosecuted in 1836 for an inflammatory speech 
on " Repeal." 

The mantle of John Reynolds fell on Alderman Devitt, 
who was liked and often loved, although he hit with a loaded 
club in the discharge of public duty. He did not long 
survive John Reynolds dying in the plenitude of his strength 
on September 5 th, 1869. His family was short-lived. His 
brother, a well-known journalist in Dublin, had fallen quite 
suddenly at his post. A very handsome Celtic cross ex 
tends its arms over Alderman Devitt s grave, inscribed : 
" Erected in affectionate remembrance by a few of his personal 
friends." 

A very interesting person was Michael Barry, B.L., Pro 
fessor of Law in the Queen s College, Cork. He was one of 
the best story-tellers ot his time ; and the tables of kindred 
spirits became the brighter by his presence. Letters meant for 
his namesake, Michael Joseph Barry, B.L., editor of the 
Songs of Ireland," sometimes reached the wrong man, which 
led Michael Joseph to say : " He is feed for my law and fed 
for my wit." A shrewd thinker once wrote : 

He who has a thousand friends, has not one friend to spare, 
But he who has one enemy will meet him everywhere." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



I0 7 




MONUMENT TO ALD. JOHN REYNOLDS, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



IO8 HISTORY OF THE 

It was Professor Barry s fate to meet this one man. Barry 
had been nominated a Colonial Chief Justice the duties of 
which office he could have imposingly discharged ; but his foe 
worked with a will and had influence enough to get the appoint 
ment cancelled.* Michael Barry was never the same man 
after. Anecdotes continued to fall from his lips, but his eye 
had lost its former sparkle, and a passing cloud would come 
to shade the sunshine of his smile. He died, aged 58, on 
June 24th, 1869, and was buried in the O Connell Circle. 

A marble monument in the Garden Section, decorated with 
a coronet, records that Bryan Count de Kavanagh, M.D., rests 
beneath it. He died October _j.th, 1869, aged 63. 

It was at this time that a Sub-Committee of the Board re 
ported, among other things, that "The Visitors Book showed 
daily evidence that O Connell s grave is an object of abiding 
interest and veneration to persons coming from every quarter 
of the globe. Its present situation, not apart from the graves 
of the other dead, and less distinguished than most of those 
which surround it its condition with paltry and flimsy decora 
tion, with no adornment but the flowers renewed by the 
remembrance of the servants of your Board all is unworthy, 
and your Committee have no hesitation in saying that, subject 
to consultation with such surviving members of the family as 
are reasonably accessible, no time should be lost in having the 
coffin removed, with becoming ceremony and accompaniments, 
to the crypt at the foot of the Round Tower; that in that more 
spacious and suitable vault the coffin should be placed, enclosed 
in a sarcophagus or altar tomb, Irish in design; and that the 
crypt itself should be decorated with proper emblems, inscrip 
tions, or other appropriate ornament ; " and the Committee 
expressed their hope " that the result would be that the grave 
of O Connell, in the greatest Catholic Cemetery in his own 
land, would be not wholly unworthy of the place his memory 
holds in the gratitude and love of his fellow-countrymen." 

Communication was at once opened with the O Connell 
family, and some interesting incidents were the result. The 
outer coffin, which came from Genoa, was found on examination 
to have been much impaired, but the mountings, exquisite in 
design, remained perfectly intact. These were transferred to a 
new and very beautiful shell. The crypt designed for its re- 

* The allusion is not to Michael Joseph Barry who, also, by unfriendly 
interposition, lost his position of police magistrate and died poor. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES lOQ 

ception is in the form of an altar tomb : three pierced panels are 
at either side, and one at the west end, so that the coffin may 
be seen through the openings. In front of each of the panels 
rises a semi-circular arch supported by a base, shaft, and 
handsome capital. The ornamentation is purely Celtic. The 
bases of the capitals are round and represent a serpent coiled. 
The table of the tomb is a single slab of Kilkenny marble, the 
length nine feet by four. Bannerets were suspended from the 
walls on one of which was the Irish harp on a field of shamrocks. 
An inscription written on a label is as follows : " The Liberator 
of his Country." On another : " The friend of Civil and Reli 
gious Liberty, all over the world." On the third is depicted the 
Shamrock and Irish Crown, inscribed : " The Apostle of Moral 
Force." On the fourth is a monogram of O Connell. In 
scription : "The Emancipator of his Catholic Fellow-Subjects." 
On the wall over the entrance of the crypt are the following 
words, said to have been uttered by O Connell in his last 
illness: 

" My Body to Ireland. 
My Heart to Rome. 
My Soul to Heaven." 

On May i4th, 1869, when the remains of O Connell were 
removed from their original resting-place to the crypt beneath 
the round tower at Glasnevin, Father Tom Burke, the great 
Dominican, pronounced a funeral panegyric of much power. 
Cardinal Cullen, supported by a bench of bishops, presided ; 
around clustered the survivors of the old Catholic and Repeal 
Associations, the Municipalities of Ireland, and high officials 
who attained their positions by the Act of Emancipation. The 
scene was striking and picturesque. Beneath a vast awning 
were all the preparations for the solemn rite of a Pontifical 
Requiem Mass. Sublime Gregorian music rose from four 
hundred voices ; a grand procession was formed, and moved 
slowly through the grounds ; the robes of clergy and corpora 
tors intermingled their hues with the rich foliage of trees and 
flowers. Fifty thousand persons were there to honour the 
memory of O Connell. Amongst them stood Lord Chancellor 
O Hagan, K.P., Chief Justice Monahan, Lord Bellew, several 
baronets, Chief Baron Pigot, with Judges O Brien and Lynch. 

" His glorious victory," said Father Burke, "did honour 
even to those whom he vanquished. He honoured them by 
appealing to their sense of justice and of right ; and in the Act 



110 HISTORY OF THE 

of Catholic Emancipation England acknowledged the power 
of a people, not asking for mercy, but clamouring for the liberty 
of the soul the blessing which was born with Christ, and 
which is the inheritance of the nations that embrace the Cross. 
Catholic emancipation was but the herald and the beginning of 
victories. He who was the Church s liberator and most true 
son was also the first of Ireland s statesmen and patriots. Our 
people remember well, as their future historian will faithfully 
record, the many trials borne for them, the many victories 
gained in their cause, the great life devoted to them by 
O Connell. Lying, however, at the foot of the altar, as he is 
to-day, whilst the Church hallows his grave with prayer and 
sacrifice, it is more especially as the Catholic Emancipator that 
we place a garland on his tomb. It is as a child of the Church 
that we honour him and recall with tears our recollections 
of the aged man, revered, beloved, whom all the glory of the 
world s admiration and the nation s love had never lifted up in 
soul out of the holy atmosphere of Christian humility and 
simplicity. Obedience to the Church s laws, quick zeal for her 
honour and the dignity of her worship ; a spirit of penance re 
fining whilst it expiated, chastening whilst it ennobled, all that 
was natural in the man ; constant and frequent use of the 
Church s sacraments, which shed the halo of grace round his 
head these were the last grand lessons which he left to his 
people, and thus did the sun of his life set in the glory of 
Christian holiness." 

Father Burke touchingly referred to the famine, which 
broke O Connell s heart and led to his pilgrimage to Rome : 
" For Ireland he lived, for Ireland he died. On the shores 
of the Mediterranean the weary traveller lay down. At 
the last moment his profound knowledge of his country s 
history may have given him that prophetic glimpse of the 
future sometimes vouchsafed to great minds. He had led 
a mighty nation to the opening of the right way, and 
directed her first and doubtful steps in the path of conciliation 
and justice to Ireland. Time, which ever works out the designs 
of God, has carried that nation forward in the glorious way. 
With firmer step, with undaunted soul, with high resolve of 
justice, peace, and conciliation, the w r ork which was begun by 
Ireland s Liberator progressed in our day. Chains are being 
forged for our country, but they are chains of gold to bind up 
all discordant elements in the empire, so that all men shall live 
together as brothers in the land. If we cannot have the bless- 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES III 

ings of religious unity, so as to be all of one mind, we shall 
have the next dearest blessing that heaven can give, the 
peace that springs from perfect religious liberty and equality. 
All this do we owe to the man whose memory we recall to-day, 
to the principles he taught us which illustrate his life, and 
which, in the triumph of Catholic emancipation, pointed out to 
Irish people the true secret of their strength, the true way of 
progress, and the sure road to victory. The seed which his 
hand had sown it was not given to him to reap in its fulness. 
Catholic emancipation was but the first instalment of liberty. 
The edifice of religious freedom was to be crowned when the 
wise architect who had laid its foundations and built up the 
walls was in his grave. Let us hope that his dying eyes were 
cheered and the burden of his last hour lightened by the sight 
of the perfect grandeur of his work ; that like the prophet- 
lawgiver he beheld all the land that he saw it with his eyes, 
though he did not pass over to it ; that it was given to him 
to salute from afar of! the brightness of the day which he 
was never to enjoy. The dream of his life is being realised 
to-day. He had ever sighed to be able to extend to his Pro 
testant fellow-countrymen the hand of perfect friendship, which 
only exists where there is perfect equality, and to enter with 
them into the compact of the true peace which is founded in 
justice. Time, which buries in oblivion so many names and so 
many memories, will exalt him in his work. The day has already 
dawned and is ripening to its perfect noon when Irishmen of 
every creed will remember O Connell, and celebrate him as the 
common friend and greatest benefactor of their country. What 
man is there, even of those our age has called great, whose 
name, so long after his death, could summon so many loving 
hearts around his tomb ? We to-day are the representatives 
not only of a nation but of a race. Quae regio in terris nostri 
non plena laboris ? Where is the land that has not seen 
the face of our people and heard their voice ? and wherever, 
even to the ends of the earth, an Irishman is found to-day, his 
spirit and his sympathy are here. The millions ot America 
are with us ; the Irish Catholic soldier on India s plains is present 
amongst us by the magic of his love ; the Irish sailor, standing 
by the wheel this moment in far-offsilent seas, where it is night, 
and the southern stars are shining, joins his prayer with ours, 
and recalls the glorious image and venerated name of O Connell. 
He is gone, but his fame shall live for ever on the earth as a 
lover of God and his people. Adversaries, political and religious, 



112 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




SJL 



114 HISTORY OF THE 

he had many, and, like a tower of strength, which stood full 
square to all the winds that blew, the Hercules of justice and 
of liberty stood up against them. Time, which touches all 
things with mellowing hand, has softened the recollection of 
past contests, and they who once looked upon him as a foe, now 
only remember the glory of the fight and the mighty genius of 
him who stood forth the representative man of his race and the 
champion of his people. They acknowledge his greatness, and 
they join hands with us to weave the garland of his fame. But 
far other, higher, and holier are the feelings of Irish Catholics 
all the world over to-day. They recognise in the dust which 
we are assembled to honour the powerful arm that promoted 
them, the eloquent tongue which proclaimed their rights, the 
strong hand which, like that of the Maccabee of old, first 
struck off their chains and built up their altars. Mingling the 
supplication of prayer and the gratitude of suffrage with their 
tears, they recall with love the memory of him who was a Joseph 
to Israel, their tower of strength, their buckler and their shield, 
who shed around their homes, altars, and graves the sacred 
light of religious liberty and the glory of unfettered worship. 
His praise is in the Church ; and this is the surest pledge of 
the immortality of his glory. A people s voice may be the 
proof and echo of human fame, but the voice of the undying 
Church is the echo of everlasting glory ; and when those 
who surround his grave to-day shall have passed away, all 
future generations of Irishmen to the end of time will be re 
minded of his name and of his glory." 

When Sir Walter Crofton and John Lentaigne were Direc 
tors of Convict Prisons, they had no more zealous co-operator in 
carrying out reforms in prison discipline than James P. Organ, to 
whom Lord Carlisle, struck by his natural aptitude for the work, 
was the first to give office. Wesley preached to prisoners in New 
gate, Dublin, but with poor results. Organ approached them in 
another way. Originally a teacher under the National Board, 
he w r as qualified for the work he took in hand. Regarding 
ignorance as the fruitful source of crime, he aimed to refine the 
roughest material by culture. The official directory of the 
day describes Organ as, " Inspector of released convicts and 
lecturer." These men occupied a penitentiary in Smithfield, 
and a reformatory at Lusk. Organ put them through a course 
of instruction which revealed to them both worlds in a new light. 
He found out the natural tastes and talents of his prisoners, 
and then applied himself to the task of providing remunerative 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 115 

employment for each. He sought interviews with various em 
ployers ; and if hesitancy was shewn to ratifying an engagement, 
he went personal security for his proteges. A few cases of 
relapse occurred ; but Organ s experiment on the whole worked 
well. His premature death, at the age of 46, on November i ith, 
1869, was a distinct loss to the reformatory system. Organ s 
grave at Glasnevin is in the Garden Section. 

The funeral at this time of Lady Shiel had interesting 
associations. She was the sister-in-law of Richard Lalor Shiel, 
the great champion of civil and religious liberty, and the wife 
of Sir Justin Shiel, K.C.B., Minister at the court of the Shah. 
Sir Justin s death followed on April i8th, 1871. 

Two youths from Clare came to Dublin the same day to 
seek their fortune Michael Staunton and Michael O Loghlen. 
The latter became the first Catholic Master of the Rolls in 
Ireland. Staunton, at the age of twenty, succeeded to the 
editorial chair of the Freeman s Journal, and continued to 
conduct it until 1824, when lie started the Morning Register. 
The Catholic body, emerging from bondage, were gradually 
acquiring energy and political importance : and a journal with 
literary capabilities to represent their wants and record their 
proceedings, was loudly called for. He enlisted on its staff 
the ablest young men he could find, including Charles Gavan 
Duffy, Thomas Davis, J. B. Dillon, W. B. MacCabe, John 
Finlay, Carew O Dwyer, and John Quinlan. Great confidence 
was reposed in him as the leading popular journalist ; he was 
offered a lucrative post under the Crown, but replied that he 
could not afford to take it. When Mr. Lamb, afterwards Lord 
Melbourne, became Chief Secretary for Ireland, Staunton 
published a manual called, " Lessons for Lamb." Two years 
later Sir H. Harding, afterwards Lord Harding, succeeded to 
the same duties, when Staunton brought out, " Hints for 
Harding." " They enabled me, on different occasions, to do 
good battle for our unfortunate country," wrote the patriotic 
peer, Lord Cloncurry. Someone retorted with, "Stings for 
Staunton," who, however, was not at all thin-skinned. He was 
a member of the Catholic Association, and the correspondent of 
Dr. Doyle (J. K. L.) and O Connell. In 1831 he was prosecuted 
for having published some soul-stirring appeals addressed by the 
Tribune to his countrymen. It was at this time that Thomas 
Moore met Staunton, of whom he gives an account in his diary. 
A number of publications came from Staunton s pen, full of 
important statistical and political data. He lived in eventful 



Il6 HISTORY OF THE 

times. After a career of many years, the Register was 
bought by Sir John Gray, and amalgamated with the Freeman s 
Journal, while Staunton, having now ample time at his disposal, 
was persuaded by Lord Clarendon, to accept a financial post. 
He died, aged 82, on February 26th, 1870. An uninscribed 
obelisk, in Curran s Square, rises over his grave. 

Catherine Baroness Von Stentz, aged 75, was buried at 
Glasnevin, in October, 1870. 

A coloured cartoon representing a man in spectacles in 
scribed simply " Frank," and bearing for motto, " The pen is 
mightier than the sword," was, some years ago, not unfamiliar 
to those who care for such things. The portrait was at once 
recognised as that of Frank Sullivan, a sharp critic and graphic 
delineator. He visited Glasnevin Cemetery at this time, and, 
having noticed its picturesque features, wrote a description, of 
which the following is an extract : " I lingered on my way 
to inspect monumental piles erected perhaps as much to flatter 
the living as a tribute to the memory of the dead; to read 
epitaphs in which sorrow and affection sought to find expression, 
or where the pomp of woe sought to reveal its dignity ; or 
to look on a nameless grave where the ashes of the gifted and 
the unfortunate repose where those I knew well in life lay 
forgotten as if they had never been, and on graves over which 
I stood and felt compunction that I had ever warred with the 
handfuls of earth that lay mouldering beneath. I passed 
through the fine arched cross-surmounted gateway, and I took 
up a position on the road in front of the entrance." Sullivan 
was a philosopher ; and the funerals of the poor afforded him 
most interest. One scant cortege consisted of " a woman, the 
mother of three little children, who were present with their 
father personifying sorrow and desolation." 

" Whose funeral is that which now blackens all the way ? 
It is of one who has died young and full of promise. He was 
an only son, and the only chief mourner is his father, whose 
sorrow has drunk up all his tears, and in whose soul affliction 
reigns. His presence fills all about him with a kind of awe, as on 
the son, whose lifeless clay he follows to the grave, were centred 
all his hopes. He enters the chapel and leaves it with the 
corpse, as if mechanically. His eyes follow the coffin as it 
sinks into the grave, and, when the last prayers have been said, 
the sound of the dull, heavy earth falling on it wrings from him 
a moan of anguish, which, I thought, as I fell back behind the 
crowd, was the saddest sound I ever heard. The earth is piled 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 117 

up against a headstone, which tells that the sorrowing man was 
wifeless and childless in his old age. During my stay near the 
gate I saw many funerals arrive, and people belonging to all 
classes in society * steeped to the lips in sorrow. Weary of 
observing so much human misery in one forenoon, I took a walk 
through the Cemetery, which I found was kept in excellent 
order, and that its trees and shrubs, adding so much to its beauty, 
had been well cared for. The monuments and tombs, as a 
general rule, are in good taste, and the majority of those recently 
erected are excellent models and worthy of imitation." He says 
in conclusion : " Had I not known what kind of things epitaphs 
are, I would have come to the conclusion that there had been 
great mortality amongst the good, and that the opposite were 
blessed with a longevity approaching that of the Patriarchs." 
Poor Frank Sullivan himself now sleeps amidst these tombs, 
and surmounted by an epitaph to which even he could hardly 
object. 

When we remember that the Very Rev. Dr. Spratt was a 
great champion of temperance, a prominent supporter of public 
charities, the founder of benevolent homes and philanthropic 
societies, one is not surprised to see it recorded by the Rev. 
W. G. Carroll, Rector of St. Bride s, in his account of the Doctor s 
obsequies at Glasnevin, supplied to the Freeman s Journal, that 
" Protestant clergymen and Dissenters stood side by side with 
the Priest and the layman of that Church of which the kindly 
deceased was so revered a minister." Valentine Lord Clon- 
curry made him his almoner ; and some of the most charac 
teristic letters which appear in his "Life" are addressed to 
Dr. Spratt. But the Priest proved himself a practical patriot 
as well. Whilst the great Tribune lived, Fr. Spratt was his 
ardent supporter. In the struggle for Emancipation, in the 
Precursor Society, in the Repeal Association, O Connell might 
always calculate on the patriotic Carmelite. Fr. Spratt was 
born in 1798, which gave rise to a joke that he had been " in 
arms " himself during that troubled time. The late George 
Wheeler, T.C.D., who in 1870 edited the Irish Times, described 
him as "A truly good and amiable man called from the scene of 
his beneficent and pious labours, leaving a void which cannot 
readily be filled. There was no path of Christian duty, no appli 
cation of Christian charity that was a stranger to Dr. Spratt s 
heart, or to his daily life ; but there were certain forms of human 
suffering to which he ministered with special tenderness ; and 
there was one desolating vice against which he contended with 



HISTORY OF THE 



... V 





VERY REV. DR. SPRATT ? S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES IIQ 

all his powers. The orphan found in him a father, and the 
homeless wanderer of the streets a refuge ; while the drink 
demon, that more than all other causes combined, fill our 
poor-houses with orphans and our streets with outcasts, found 
in him a vigilant, untiring, life-long foe. Retiring and unob 
trusive by nature, in this last cause he permitted himself to be 
prominently before the public." It may be added that it was 
in the actual service of this cause he died, for death struck 
him while he was administering the temperance pledge, 
immediately after celebrating Mass in Whitefriar Street church. 
It was probably the mode and circumstance of death that he 
would have chosen for himself. There is a fine monument to 
Dr. Spratt in the Tower Circle of the Cemetery. 

" Fifty thousand people attended Leo s funeral, so popular 
had he become by his genius and patriotism," writes David 
O Donoghue in his Poets of Ireland. Leo was the pseudonym 
over which John Keegan Casey, an ardent youth, wooed his 
muse. Born in 1846 at Mount Dalton, Westmeath, his first 
poem appeared when he was only sixteen years old. Two 
small volumes "A Wreath of Shamrocks,"* and the " Rising 
of the Moon," were the work of his facile pen. The ardour 
of youth spurred him into active sympathy with the Fenian 
movement. He was put in gaol as a " suspect," and his 
death, which occurred on St. Patrick s Day, 1870, is said to 
have been hastened by his imprisonment. After his death the 
" Reliques of J. K. Casey " were collected and edited by Fugene 
Davis, and a detailed account of his life appears in Farrell s 
" Historical Notes on Longford." A handsomely sculptured 
monument has been raised in the South Section displaying 
among other devices an Irish Round Tower and Ruined Church. 
Thomas Caulfield Irwin, an Ulster poet of considerable genius, 
who received honorable recognition from Lord Salisbury s 
Government, wrote an " In Memoriam " on Casey, the more 
remarkable when we know that Irwin did not share the politics 
of " Leo." 

During the previous year Edward Duffy died in Millbank 
prison and was buried in Glasnevin. The inscription on his 
tomb tells that he had been convicted of participation in the 
Fenian Rising of 67. 



* A Wreath of Shamrocks : Ballads, Songs and Legends. Dublin : McGee, 
pp. 111-115. 



120 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 121 

Joseph Downey, another Irish poet, shortly followed 
" Leo." Walking in the footprints of Furlong, he produced 
a number of pieces under the signature of " Shamrock." A 
memorial cross in the South Section bears an inscription not 
the less touching that it includes an appropriate extract from 
one of his own poems. Downey, a native of Kildare, died at 
the early age of 24, on the nth of June, 1870. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE blow successfully dealt against Golden Bridge Cemetery 
in 1869 was followed a few months later by another aimed at 
the younger necropolis of Glasnevin. This time it was a more 
dastardly and subtle stroke wanting the soldier-like courage 
of the first, and influenced not a little by private animus. The 
charge made, under the pretence of raising a legal question, 
was a base and calumnious one, and was not put forward by 
any person who had a grievance to allege. 

On January 2ist, 1870, a dismissed officer of the Cemetery, 
who had had an old quarrel with the Board, summoned to the 
Police Court representatives of the Cemetery Board, to answer 
his complaint, and shew cause why informations should not be 
taken against them for having unlawfully, and contrary to 
public decency, on divers days and times between the ist day 
of January, 1866, and the ist day of January, 1870, disinterred 
several bodies and human remains interred in the Cemetery of 
Prospect, Glasnevin. 

A pamphlet printed for the use of the Catholic Cemetery 
Committee, reported the proceedings at the Police Court in 
extcnso. 

The Chief Police Magistrate, and his brother Magistrate, 
Mr. C. J. O Donel, complained from the Bench that they had 
been kept waiting for the prosecution nearly three-quarters of 
an hour : and it seemed not unlikely that the summons would be 
dismissed; but Mr. Coffey, Q.C., declared that the gentlemen 
summoned were most anxious to court a thorough investigation 
of the extraordinary charges made against them. 

Mr. MacDonough, Q.C., in the course of some remarks, 
referred in complimentary terms to the then governing body 



122 HISTORY OF THE 

of the Cemetery. Mr. MacDonough usually spoke in flattering 
words of solicitors, from whom his large income as counsel 
was mainly derived ; but in this case he made an exception : 
" He (the solicitor) had a hostility to the Committee; he had a 
quarrel with them; and this monstrous transaction occurs, that 
an attorney thinks fit to resolve to work out his revenge, and 
he employs a discharged servant who, not quite four years 
before, had been in the service of this body, and who had been 
dismissed for repeated acts of drunkenness. And it is a very 
formidable thing for the public, and every man, if an attorney, 
who has a spite or ill-will against an individual, shall be at 
liberty to dog that individual to watch him, to employ his 
discarded servant, to pay that servant, to engage him solely 
and entirely for that prosecution which he meditates against 
the object of his revenge. This highly respectable body, what 
were they doing ? Transacting their duties, their all-important 
duties ; men of the first standing in the city ; persons whom 
we all know and respect ; gentlemen discharging, without any 
advantage to themselves, the onerous duties incumbent on 
them ; men above all suspicion, and against whom now, at the 
close of this case, we have not had a single tittle of evidence." 
Regarding the attorney and the dismissed servant of the Ceme 
tery, who had entered on this prosecution, Counsel advised 
them " to take a page of the criminal law home, and study it, 
and I will tell them that it is conspiracy ; I will tell them 
that if two persons conspire, combine, agree, and confederate 
together to institute a charge, false in its character, they who 
institute that charge had better look very seriously to them 
selves." 

It appeared in evidence that the dismissed servant was to 
get money from the attorney. " He was to abuse his privilege 
as a grantee. He investigated the books ; he was offered every 
facility ; and what was the result ? If they could have dis 
cerned that these high-minded merchants had been guilty of 
any malversation of the funds, what a cry we would have ! 
This discarded servant is obliged to tell you that there never 
was a complaint, while he was employed in the Cemetery, of 
exhumation, or of misconduct, or anything of that sort." For 
four days the magisterial investigation continued ; the proceed 
ings were reported in every newspaper ; the utmost interest 
prevailed. During all that time, as was pointed out by Mr. 
Coffey, Q.C., " not a single human being, out of the whole popu 
lation of Dublin, interested in the thousands upon thousands of 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 123 

interments which have taken place in the Cemetery, has come 
forward here to utter one word of complaint, or to make even 
the suggestion of a charge that the remains of any relative or 
friend of theirs has ever been disturbed or desecrated." 

All who know the culture of Mr. Murphy, Q.C. (now Mr. 
Justice Murphy), will be prepared to hear that, in replying to 
Mr. MacDonough, he brightened so lugubrious a subject by 
an appeal to poetry : " Some persons do not care what be 
comes of their bodies after their souls have departed, whether 
they are buried in the depths of the sea, or on the tops of misty 
mountains. The greatest poet that ever lived in England had 
placed over his tomb 

" Blessed be he that spares those stones, 
And cursed be he that moves my bones." 

Now, I say that it is idle for men to come forward here and 
say that the public or the persons interested in being buried in 
this ground can have no respect to this. The sole question 
which you have to ask yourselves here is this whether you can 
distinctly say that there is no legal question to be tried in this 
case ? If you can arrive at that conclusion, you will, of course, 
refuse to send forward the case for trial ; but if you cannot 
arrive at such a conclusion, the case should be sent forward." 

The attorney in the cause displayed astuteness. He shut 
the mouths of all persons officially connected with the Cemetery, 
from the Committee, its secretary, superintendent, and sexton, 
to the humblest gravedigger. All those persons who had 
immediate and abundant sources of knowledge who knew all 
about the interments and management of the Cemetery having 
been made defendants in the case, could not open their lips in 
explanation. 

The Chief Magistrate, in giving judgment, said: -" This 
case has taken up a great deal of time, and, in giving our 
decision on it now, it is not necessary that we should go over 
the evidence that has been given. It is enough for us to say, 
that we have come to the conclusion that no case has been 
made showing that there has been a removal, a disturbance of 
remains, or a desecration. We have, therefore, no hesitation 
in dismissing the summons." 

Mr. C. J. O Donei said : " In a case of this description, con 
sidering the interests involved, the parties who are charged here 
with this offence, and the nature of the summons, I do not wish 
to allow it to close without making a few observations. There 



124 HISTORY OF THE 

is another reason why I wish to speak on the subject, and that 
is to remove from the public mind and that numerous class of 
citizens whose relatives must have been buried here, to remove 
from their minds all apprehension or alarm, that the slightest 
desecration, indignity, or dishonour, has been offered to the 
remains of their friends buried in Glasnevin. The case set 
forth in the summons is one of great gravity indeed." The 
magistrate here read the words of the summons, in which it 
was alleged that, for pecuniary or other considerations, bodies 
were removed out of their graves. His worship then said :- 
< There is not one single shadow of evidence to justify such an 
imputation. The plaintiff had himself the choice of his own 
language to incriminate the Committee of the Glasnevin 
Cemetery, and he uses language of the most serious character. 
He alleges that crimes against public decency have been com 
mitted. So far from that having been done, counsel now, in 
their discretion, withdraw all imputation of that kind, and 
without limit, and the sole issue between them and the Com 
mittee has been reduced to this that the Committee have no 
right to go over unregistered graves, so long as the slightest 
particle of human remains can be discovered. That being now 
conceded to be the issue between the parties, I will state the 
reasons that influence me in coming to the conclusion that 
nothing has been proved in this case to justify its being sent 
for trial. It now appears on the evidence of the witnesses for 
the prosecution, the gravediggers, who are the best possible 
witnesses, that in or about a period of fifteen or twenty years 
the softer portions of the human body pass away, and that no 
portion remains except the inorganic portion of the body, of 
which the bones are formed. The gravediggers stated, that 
after that period they found nothing but clean bones. Now, 
admitting that the body, or rather the softer portions, have 
entirely passed away, and that nothing remains but the cranium 
and the bones, it is argued, that so long as they remain there 
the grave must remain untouched, and to touch it or disturb it 
is an act of desecration. Now, to test the application of this, 
everybody who knows anything of the structure of bones must 
be perfectly well aware that the human bones will last for 
centuries ; and it is stated, as a positive fact, that the bones of 
persons that were swallowed up in the great eruption of Vesu 
vius that destroyed Pompeii two thousand years ago, were 
found perfect there. According to Mr. Murphy s argument, it 
would be a desecration to bury them. If, for an indefinite 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 125 

period, it would become impracticable to bury a second body 
in a grave where a body had been previously interred, then, for 
every new burial, fresh ground must be opened. If that were 
the case there would not be an inch of ground in Glasnevin in 
which to bury the dead of Dublin in a few years. The con 
clusion brought fairly and logically from the premises is, that 
the premises themselves must be unsound. The proposition 
laid down by Mr. Murphy as applicable to those unregistered 
graves, is untenable ; and the second ground he laid down is 
equally untenable. It has reference to all people who have 
got family graves graves in which they have buried their 
deceased friends. Now, what is the experience of people every 
time they visit the graves in which their ancestors are buried ? 
On the death of members of the family, orders are given to the 
gravediggers to open the graves. Now, is it not within the 
knowledge of every man who has buried a relation in a grave, 
that the gravediggers come upon thigh-bones, rib-bones, and 
skulls, and are not these bones and skulls the remains of his 
own deceased ancestors or relatives ; and if he follows the coffin 
does he not see those bones piled on the freshly-lifted clay, 
waiting for the coffin to be put back in its place? Is not that 
our every-day experience ? For my part, it has been my sad 
duty to witness it on a great many occasions, and on those 
occasions I saw the bones that were left on the side of the grave 
put back into the grave before it was refilled. It is untenable 
to say that it is an act of desecration to put clean bones on the 
side of a grave. If it is, it is an act of desecration that is com 
mitted by members of every family. And I say that if it is not 
an act of desecration in the head of a family to do this, it is not 
an act of desecration if it is done by the trustees of this Cemetery. 
I say it is a monstrous thing that, without a shadow of ground 
for sustaining this charge, the process of this court should 
be prostituted for the purpose of private malignity. It is a 
monstrous thing that citizens of the highest position in this city 
should have such a charge brought against them, and without 
the slightest shadow of foundation for the proceeding." 



126 



HISTORY OF THE 




TYPICAL CELTIC CROSS ON THE CUNNINGHAM VAULT, 
GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 127 



CHAPTER XII. 

DENIS PHELAN, M.D., Assistant Poor Law Commissioner, who 
was buried at Glasnevin on May 23rd, 1871, is described by Sir 
John Gray, M.D., as "a thoroughly good man may we not 
say a great man, if to have worked through a long life with an 
unparalleled success for the benefit of the poor, gives a right 
to the name. He was the Irish Howard, devoting himself 
incessantly not alone to poor prisoners merely, but to the whole 
mass of our countless destitute. In early life an unknown 
practitioner in a small provincial town, Dr. Phelan, feeling 
acutely the deficiencies of the dispensaries of that day, took 
upon himself with a generous courage, the arduous task of 
making, at his own cost and peril, a general inspection of the 
dispensaries in every county of Ireland. The result was a 
remarkable work, The Medical Charities of Ireland, in 
which one is at a loss whether to admire most its painstaking 
accuracy, or its honest, bold, uncompromising truthfulness. It 
is mainly owing to this book, and to Dr. Phelan s subsequent 
and unremitting labours in the same field, that our Irish dis 
pensary system has attained its present high repute, far above 
that of either of our more favoured sisters, Scotland or England. 
To Dr. Phelan the country is further mainly indebted for that 
most valuable boon, the workhouse fever hospital, which 
supplied a crying want, and gives most opportune relief to 
thousands, not of the extremely destitute only, but of the whole 
humbler classes in the rural districts, whose only resource in 
fever cases had been the far-off county infirmary. Upon our 
lying-in hospitals, too, he has left his mark, the benevolent 
mark of the kindly reformer, and recent strictures of his on that 
matter will probably have the effect of saving many valuable 
lives. As a Poor-law official it would be hard to appreciate 
duly, impossible to commend too highly, Dr. Phelan s untiring 
industry, his minute carefulness, his zealous and anxious devo 
tion to duty. As an Irishman, he was a genuine patriot, an 
ardent lover of his country, and always took, as long as the 
field was open to him, an active and influential part in the per 
formance of every civic duty. And so, in the fulness of time (he 
had completed his 86th year), going to meet the great reward 
of a well-spent life, he passed on painlessly to the spiritual 
world, it being exactly true that he gently and almost imper 
ceptibly slept in the Lord obdormivit in Domino, " 



128 HISTORY OF THE 

Sir John Gray, no doubt, derived his information from Dr. 
Phelan s son-in-law, John Edward Pigot, who, a few weeks 
later, followed him to the tomb. Pigot was the eldest son of 
Chief Baron Pigot, and adopted the law as a profession. But, 
with a brilliant career before him, he preferred to give his 
sympathies and talents to politics, and partly influenced by 
Meagher, of whom he continued the trusted friend to the end- 
joined the party of Young Ireland. He had acquirements to 
be exercised only among highly-educated minds, and he was 
prodigal in help to toilers in the scantily cultivated field of Irish 
literature.* His own contributions to the Nation under the 
signature of " Fermoy " were of a high order. He came to 
know Denis Florence M Carthy, by whom he was consulted 
as to the title of a popular serial he projected. " Call it Pigot s 
Penny Pike," replied the irrepressible humourist. By desire of 
his father, Pigot proceeded to India, where he obtained a large 
bar practice ; but ill-health compelled his return, and after a 
short residence in Dublin, he passed away. He died on July 
ist, 1871, aged 49. 

Glasnevin Cemetery, on June 1 6th, 1871, was the scene of an 
unusual and somewhat touching spectacle. The first Lord Mayor 
who had died in office during the century, was laid to rest. In 
the full plenitude of mental and physical powers, Patrick Bulfin 
passed out of life almost at his entrance on a public career, which 
promised to be one of rare value to his fellow citizens. The 
coffin had been removed from the church of St. Andrew, covered 
with a black pall, and bearing the fur-trimmed red robe, 
wand, and other insignia of his office. " The black with which 
the church was draped," observes the Rev. George Wheeler, 
Rector of Ballysax, who at that time wrote for a leading journal, 
" the mournful requiems which were chanted, the solemn pro 
cessions and noble impressive ritual in which a vast body of 
clergy took part, with a Cardinal presiding, gave fit and 
adequate expression to the public sense of the loss sustained by 
Dublin in the premature death of its upright and munificent 
Chief Magistrate. The vast area of the church was crowded 

* Eugene O Curry in the preface to his Lectures on the " Manuscript 
Materials for Ancient Irish History," after acknowledging his valuable assist 
ance in their plan and original preparation, declares (p. xii.) that in addition 
he owes Mr. Pigot "the untiring devotion of the vast amount of time and 
trouble involved in the task his friendship undertook for me, of correcting the 
text, and preparing for, and passing through the press the whole of this 
volume." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES I2Q 

by citizens of all ranks, anxious to testify their respect for the 
dead, and reverentially assisting at those solemn and touching 
services of which Rome so eminently possesses the secret." 

The tomb of James Duffy, the publisher, is found on the 
main walk of the Dublin Section. The inscription will derive 
its chief interest from the fact that it was penned by a highly 
distinguished writer, the Rev. C. P. Meehan : " Beneath lies 
all that was mortal of James Duffy, J.P., who passed out of 
this life, July 4th, 1871, aged 62 years. Pray for him, O reader, 
.for he deserved well of religion and country his devotional 
publications have instructed many unto salvation, and the 
historic works he published have exalted the character of his 
native land, and saved its saints and heroes from oblivion. A 
benefactor to the altar, and a true man to Ireland he merits 
your prayers." 

The Hon. Martin Ffrench, aged 78 years, of Ballinamore 
Park, Ballinasloe, Deputy Lieutenant and J.P., Co. Galway, 
was buried 3oth November, 1871. He had ably worked with 
O Connell in the struggle for Emancipation. 

One of the finest architectural ornaments which in recent 
years have adorned Dublin, is the Mater Misericordise Hospital. 
It had been barely finished under the auspices of John Bourke, 
F.R.I. A., when death took him away. His heart was in the 
good work, and he bequeathed his money to carry it to com 
pletion. Bourke was buried at Glasnevin, November i4th, 
1871. 

He had been preceded to the tomb by a man of great energy 
and intelligence, who had often been associated with his archi 
tectural works : On March 29th, 1871, Patrick J. Murphy who 
had beautifully carried out the restoration of the crumbling 
old cathedral of St. Patrick, in Dublin was laid to rest. 

The enemies of Mr. Justice Keogh declared that he had 
little heart ; but they knew not the man. They remembered 
only a volcanic utterance at Galway, which all but sent an 
earthquake through the land. One day, at Glasnevin, a new 
and fair feature in his character was revealed : " I do not 
remember to have witnessed anything more painful than the 
emotions by which that man was torn when the corpse of 
his daughter was consigned to the vault," said Father Tom 
Burke. " His paroxysms of grief could hardly be realised by 
anyone who had previously known him, and never had I a more 
difficult task to discharge than in trying to bring him away." 
There were circumstances, of which the world knew nothing, 

K 



1 3 o 



HISTORY OF THE 




JAMES DUFFY S MONUMENT GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 13! 

which lent to her early departure a special sadness. A son of 
Sir Robert Kane, who had just won a brilliant reputation in 
Naval science, was betrothed to Miss Keogh. When leaving 
a heated ball-room she caught cold, and on August lyth, 1871, 
rapidly succumbed to congestion of the lungs. On a marble 
tablet, over vault 26 in the O Connell Circle, is inscribed : 
" To our beloved Jessie. Her father and mother, William and 
Kate Keogh." Judge Keogh was a man of large mind, with a 
Demosthenic eloquence united to social gifts of a high order. 

Mr. Justice Lynch, whose funeral arrived from 27 Merrion 
Square, South, on the 2ist December, 1872, was the son of 
David Lynch, a Dublin merchant, well-known for his advanced 
liberal views, and one of the most prominent supporters of 
Daniel O Connell. The future judge became Chairman of 
Louth in 1857; Bankruptcy Judge in 1859; and Judge of the 
Landed Estates Court in 1867. At the Bar an able and strenu 
ous advocate, he proved on the bench a most painstaking 
judge. 

The career of Patrick Joseph Murray, B.L., editor of the 
Irish Quarterly Review, biographer of John Banim, and finally 
Director of Convict prisons, came to a premature end on Febru 
ary 8th, 1873. He was a man of sound critical acumen and great 
energy of character. He had as his colleague in the serial first 
mentioned, J.T.Gilbert, LL.D., whose debut as an historic writer 
of great research and charm, was made in its pages. Many of 
Murray s writings were given to the subject of reformatory and 
prison discipline, on which he was recognised as an authority. 
His life of Banim is inscribed to Sergeant Armstrong, Q.C. 
Murray had not attained the age of fifty. 

His collaborateur in literature, Michael Merriman, B.L., 
preceded him by a few weeks, and his handsome tomb, inscribed, 
" 3oth December, 1872. AZtat 41," will be found in the old 
Chapel Circle. 

" A pleasanter book I have not read for many a day." So 
wrote W. M. Thackeray of " The Legends of Mount Leinster," 
by Patrick Kennedy. Many other volumes followed in the 
wake of its success notably, " Fictions of the Irish Celts," 
" Evenings in the Duffry," and " Banks of the Boro." Some of 
these have been lately reprinted by Macmillan. As a graphic 
delineator of Irish rural life, Patrick Kennedy has seldom been 
surpassed. Originality, a quaint, sly humour and raciness, 
combined with a simple philosophy, characterise his style. Mr. 
Routledge, recognising these qualifications, engaged him to edit 



I 3 2 HISTORY OF THE 



" The Book of Modern Irish Anecdotes." " English and 
Scotch Awa " followed : and Kennedy expressed a hope that 
they would all contribute in drawing the social bonds which 
unite the three peoples still closer. When James Sheridan 
LeFanu, author of " Uncle Silas," became owner of the Uni 
versity Magazine, he was proud to hail Kennedy as one of his 
best hands. It may be added that he reviewed books for the 
Mail ; but always in a genial and indulgent spirit. Kennedy 
had been one of Murray s staff on the Irish Quarterly : and it is 
rather a coincidence that he should so promptly have followed 
his leader to Glasnevin ; but, unlike Murray, Kennedy had 
reached four score and ten. His last moments are not likely 
to have been racked by remorse, for, as Alfred Webb casually 
remarks: " His works are singularly pure ;" adding, " he was 
widely known and respected by the literary world of Dublin " 
He died, March 28th, 1873. 

From the date ot Sir James Murray s appointment, in 1834, 
as first Inspector of Anatomy, under a new Act regulating the 
practice of that science, a complete stop was put to the dese 
cration of the dead by " Resurrectionists," instances of which 
have been already detailed. It was not until the 8th of Decem 
ber, 1871, that this able physician closed a career of great 
usefulness. Born at Derry, in 1788, one of his earliest dis 
coveries in the field of chemistry, was in connection with fluid 
magnesia, from which scores of pharmacopolists have since made 
fortunes. Lord Anglesey, an old Waterloo hero, of whom it was 
literally true that he had one leg in the grave filled the post 
of Irish Viceroy in 1831 : and having consulted Dr. Murray, 
received so much relief from his treatment, that he remained his 
medical adviser for some years. In 1835 he was gazetted for 
the same post under Lord Norman by, and in 1839 to Viscount 
Ebrmgton, both Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. Sir Tames 
Murray wrote several books on Medical science, and was 
Physician to the Anglesey and Netterville hospitals. 

Philip Lawless, B.L., was a popular man in clubland and 
elsewhere ; but probably the chief interest awakened at his 
funeral on July 5th, 1872, centered in the fact that he was the 
nephew and representative of " Honest Jack Lawless," the 
hero of Ballybay ; an intrepid colleague of O Connell in the 
struggle for Emancipation. 

At a public dinner in Dublin, December 26th, 1 833, O Connell 
said, in proposing the health of Mr. W. J. Battersby, that " he 
had published one of the most eminently useful books that had 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 133 

ever appeared on the subject of the Legislative Union ; and 
which should not be out of the hands of any English or Scotch 
man." This book, called " The Rise and Fall of Ireland," 
evinced a sound spirit of nationality, combined with an ex 
tensive range of statistical and political knowledge. From 
Battersby s research, many recent leaflets on Home Rule seem 
to have been compiled. His book " The Church," and another 
called " The Priesthood Vindicated," are also marked by in 
dustry and acumen. His "History of the Irish Jesuits" contains 
a mass of biographic detail, highly useful for reference : and 
the same remark applies to his " History of all the Abbeys, 
Convents, Churches, and Religious Houses of the Augustinian 
Order in Ireland." Battersby was buried at Glasnevin on 
February 6th, 1873. His reminiscences of men he had known 
promised to be an amusing book, judging by a resume of its 
contents, which appeared shortly before his death. 

Surgeon O Reilly, a very successful professional man, who 
amassed a large fortune by his profession, died at this time. 

A monument in the Dublin Section, bearing date, A.D. 1874, 
and erected by Sir Robert Gerard, Bart, (subsequently Lord 
Gerard), commemorates some members of his sept, including 
Mr. and Mrs. Walmsly, who have been laid beneath it. 

William Justin O Driscoll, stored with traditions of Plunket, 
Curran, Burrowes, O Grady, and the Pennefathers, claimed to 
know the secret story of cases heretofore veiled, and was " up " 
in curious precedents. Three years before his death he came 
forward in a new character. He wrote the life of Daniel 
Maclise, R.A. This book was offered with diffidence to the 
public. " Engaged in a laborious profession, and long un 
accustomed to literary work, I should have shrunk from the 
task," he writes " But as one of the very few persons, now 
living, whose familiar friendship with Maclise commenced in 
boyhood, and continued uninterrupted to his death, I thought 
it not impossible that my recollections of his earlier years might 
enable me to impart some interest to a record of his life." 
Maclise s family had given O Driscoll access to a large mass of 
his correspondence, where all his thoughts and feelings lay 
mirrored. A large number of letters addressed by Dickens to 
Maclise were, however, omitted, partly on the ground that 
Dickens had himself destroyed what, in his letter to O Driscoll, 
he describes as "an immense correspondence," "because," 
adds Dickens, " I considered it had been held with me, and 
not with the public, and also, because I could not answer for 



HISTORY OF THE 



its privacy being respected when I should be dead." This 
letter is dated May i8th, 1870. Ten days later Dickens lay 
dead at Gad s Hill. It may not be too much to say, that had 
O Driscoll s book contained this suppressed correspondence, 
the work, instead of enjoying ephemeral popularity, would 
have lived for all time. O Driscoll s death, not very long after, 
came upon his friends as a surprise. He was buried at Glas- 
nevin, May 6th, 1874. 

The funeral, at this time, of the Rev. Francis Doran, Pastor 
of St. Agatha s, Dublin, was very touching. He had accom 
panied some friends on a pleasure trip in Dublin Bay, and was 
drowned. Four plots will be found to the west of the Mortuary 
chapel, given by the Committee to the Magdalen Asylum for 
Female Penitents, Lower Gloucester Street ; to the Confra 
ternity of Our Blessed Lady of Mount Carmel, Clarendon 
Street ; and to the respective female orphanages of St. Joseph, 
and of St. Vincent de Paul, North William Street. Father Doran 
had often expressed a wish to be buried amongst the orphans, 
whom he loved and shielded : and here his grave may be seen. 

A more material mark of honour distinguishes the grave of 
a man with kindred instincts. A marble statue, by Cahill, of 
Father Fay, founder of a large orphanage in St. Catherine s 
Parish, Dublin, represents him pleading for two scantily clad 
children. The graves of both tend to recall the lines : 

" His bones, when they have run their course and sleep in blessings, 
Shall have a tomb of orphans tears shed over them." 

"It will be noticed in very many other instances," writes Mr. 
Mark O Shaughnessy, B.L., "how the Irish people s constant, 
undying affection for the Soggarth aroon finds expression 
even when his devotion to them in their sickness as in their 
health, in their poverty and trouble as in their times of prosperity 
and happiness, can be experienced no more. To perpetuate 
his memory, to express their love, the humble give their 
pennies the better circumstanced their pounds." 

A career of much usefulness was cut short on April 4th, 
1875, by the death of Laurence Waldron. A member of the 
Bar ; a Commissioner of National Education : in Parliament 
representing the county of Tipperary ; holding, at different 
periods, the office of High Sheriff; a Magistrate and Deputy 
Lieutenant, Mr. Waldron brought no ordinary experience of 
affairs, as well as no common abilities, to the service of the 
Catholic Cemeteries Board of which he was a member. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 135 

Another public man disappeared from our midst within the 
next few days. Sir John Gray, M.P., whose statue, in Sack- 
ville Street, is a triumph of Farrell s chisel, was an earnest, 
untiring worker for the moral, political, material and social 
advancement of his country. The earliest sketch of Gray 
appears in Grant s " Ireland and the Irish," published in 1843, 
and Sir Gavan Duffy s "Four Years of Irish History" com 
pletes the portrait. He died at Bath, April gth, 1875, and was 
buried at Glasnevin. 

"Since the funeral of O Connell," records the Mail, " never 
has there been so large a concourse to honour the memory of a 
public man." The impressive burial service of the Protestant 
Church was read by the Rev. W. G. Carroll, Rector of St. 
Bride s. In Parliament Sir John Gray took an active part 
in helping to make the Church and Land Bills pass. As a 
journalist he laboured unceasingly to promote the material 
welfare of Ireland, not less than the cause of sanitary reform 
and the general improvement of Dublin. The governing body 
of the Cemetery, in appreciation of his public services, made a 
grant of a 2,00 vault in perpetuity. His widow placed above 
it a fine monument of Sicilian marble, inscribed : " He is not 
dead but sleepeth." It consists of a sculptured shaft crowned 
with a massive bust of Gray. The likeness not alone preserves 
the lineaments but conveys somewhat of the thought, purpose 
and character of the man. The faces of the shaft beneath are 
carved with four figures, each typifying some of the great 
purposes to which Sir John Gray gave up his life. Foremost 
appears the beautiful spirit of the Vartry, bestowing her rich 
tide on the city. At one side is the figure of enfranchised 
Religion, trampling her fetters under foot ; at the other a 
lovely Irish maiden gleaning the fruits of a land blessed with 
security and peace ; and the remaining panel is sculptured with 
the image of Education, spreading her teaching abroad out of 
an open book, while her linger points heavenwards to the 
greater lesson to be learned above. Gray s waterworks for 
Dublin was the pioneer of great sanitary improvement of the 
same class that has since taken place throughout England and 
Ireland. The Athenceum, which usually confines its leaders to 
men of letters, paid Gray the compliment of an extended notice. 
It recognised " his versatility and readiness of expression. He 
was a remarkable, and in many respects,, a singular man. 
Without the rigidity or sectarianism of Ulster Anglo- Saxonism, 
he possessed in an eminent degree the logical and self-reliant 



HISTORY OF THE 






MONUMENT TO SIR JOHN GRAY, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 137 

characteristics of the race. Ardently attached to scientific 
enquiry, many of his leisure hours were devoted to chemical 
and mechanical pursuits, and his rare versatility in arithmetical 
calculation gave him great advantages in council and debate. 
His decease at the comparatively early age of sixty years is 
ascribed in a great degree to his unresting love of work, and 
the earnestness with which he entered into all he put his hand 
to do." 

The well-known Catholic accoucheur, Dr. Trios. McKeever, 
died, aged 84, May 3ist, 1875. He lived in Cavendish Row 
opposite the Rotunda Hospital, in which he had once presided 
and lectured. He possessed a fine literary taste as his Com 
monplace Book shews. 

Another man of much activity, though his work lay in a 
different walk, was the Rev. James Gaffhey, M.R.I. A., whose 
grave is marked by a handsome Celtic cross, erected by admirers 
of his life and worth. At the conclusion of his theological 
course in Maynooth, he was elected to the Dunboyne Estab 
lishment, and whilst there it became his duty to lecture, in place 
of the professors, to more than one class of students, and in 
more than one branch of the College curriculum. His first 
mission was at Lusk, where his love of archaeology had ample 
food. From thence he was transferred to Swords and Malahide. 
Here he revelled in historic memories and legends, as he 
scaled the battlements of the first, or roamed along the sea-girt 
strand of " Gay Malahide." Among his lectures was one on 
Edmund Burke. On being transferred to a wider sphere of 
duty namely, Clontarf, Raheny, and Coolock his death 
occurred, January 4th, 1876, aged 53. He was killed by being 
thrown out of his trap after his horse had bolted. At the time 
he met his fate, he was engaged in the preparation of a lecture 
on some Irish hagiological explorations, which he had made at 
Ratisbonne. 

The Centenary of O Connell was celebrated on August 6th, 
1875, by a procession to Glasnevin, thoroughly national in the 
fulness of its representation and ardour. But it was more than 
national in its constituent character, for troops of foreigners 
assisted in the tribute rendered to him whose labours were 
cosmopolitan in their scope, and had for their end the good of 
all mankind. Celt, Scot, and Saxon, the old world and the 
new, the antipodes, the free sons of the United States, the 
children of Canada fraternised. All hereditary jealousies of 
race were forgotten in this Fete of Freedom. Pilgrims from 



138 HISTORY OF THE 

afar knelt in thanksgiving at the Tribune s shrine, or entered 
practical protest against some iron-arm injustice which still 
weighed them down. Never were posthumous honours paid 
in a worthier way, for heart as well as form were features in 
the celebration. Those who remember the monster gatherings 
at Tara and Mullaghmast, declared that in splendour and vast- 
ness both were eclipsed that day. The then recently missed 
figure of Gray, who had been the fellow-worker as well as the 
fellow-prisoner of O Connell, suggested very natural emotions. 

Matthew O Donnell, Q.C., was a man to whose legal lore and 
industry lawyers are largely indebted. He was equally at home 
in Equity and Common Law. In 1840 he published an 
analytical digest of all the Irish equity cases, &c., &c., and six 
years later two volumes of " Addenda" appeared. In 1844 he 
compiled a treatise on the law of all actions and suits within 
the jurisdiction of the Civil Bill Court, and the principles, 
pleading, and evidence relating thereto (pp. 872). This was 
followed in 1851 by a second book on County Court practice, 
under the then new Act, 14 and 15 Victoria. He presided 
for many years as Chairman of Westmeath, and died 
January 2Oth, 1876, aged 62. 

A week or two after came David Fitzgerald, a distinguished 
member of another branch of the legal profession. Few men were 
better known or more highly regarded : his brother, later on, 
occupied a seat in the House of Lords. A tomb in the chapel 
circle is inscribed : " Pray for the soul of David Fitzgerald, 
who was born, 2nd August, 1812, died February 6th, 1876." 
On the same monument we read : " To the memory of David 
Fitzgerald, of Fleet Street, merchant, who died the 22nd [uly, 
1843, aged 56 years. We learn from Madden s " Lives of the 
United Irishmen" that he was in the confidence of Robert 
Emmet, and in November of 1803 was committed to the Tower 
on a charge of high treason. But, like Emmet, he was a mere 
stripling, and on the humane intervention of Judge Daly, with 
his Attorney-General, O Grady, afterwards Lord Guillamore, 
he regained his liberty. 

O Connell was arrested at his house in Merrion Square, at 
ten o clock on the morning of January 19, 1831. An Act had 
been recently passed by which a power was vested in the 
Viceroy to prohibit by proclamation any meeting which he 
should deem dangerous to the public peace. It was a time of 
great excitement. Revolutions swept all over Europe; thrones 
rocked, kings were abdicating. The Government sought to 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



139 









DIXON CORNELIUS o KEEFFE s MONUMENT, o CONNELL CIRCLE. 
A Restored Copy of the Ancient Cross on the Rock of Cashel. 



14 HISTORY OF THE 



grapple with O Connell. Informations having been sworn 
before Major Sirr, O Connell was, as he said, dragged like a 
common felon to the Police Court. The proceedings are given 
at much length in the various lives of O Connell. Finally, he 
was required to give bail ; one of his securities was William 
Fitzpatrick of Dame Street, a popular public man. An im 
mense crowd had assembled, through which the Liberator, 
finding it hopeless to struggle, took refuge in Fitzpatrick s 
house, and from the diningroom window addressed the surging 
crowd. Fitzpatrick continued active throughout a long life. 
His tomb records his name, but no date. From the Register it 
appears that he died at the age of 103, on November 28th, 1877. 
He was a type of the respectable middle class, who gave a 
steady, practical support and strength to O Connell s great 
political engine moral force. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THOMAS MEAGHER, M.P., Waterford, who died February 28th, 
1874, was as remarkable for being a man of few words, as his 
son was famed for unbounded command of ornate vocabulary. 
However, he was always able by his vote in Parliament and 
local influence in Waterford, of which he was Mayor, to do good 
work for Ireland. If the son was " Meagher of the sword," the 
sire, who relished the blessings of peace, was Meagher of the 
ploughshare. The glittering mace of office was an attribute of 
the first ; the iron mace of war earned the eulogy of his son, 
who spoke like a Cicero, and dressed like a D Orsay.* 

The year 1876 is remarkable in these annals for a renewal 
of hostilities between the Military and Golden Bridge Cemetery. 
A dead silence had long succeeded their previous action ; but 
it was the silent movement of the sapper, who seeks to under 
mine some obnoxious stronghold. It was supposed that the 
Order in Council of the 6th July, 1867, had closed the contest. 
But one day, in the year first named, a determined sortie was 
made from Richmond barracks, designed to harass the living, 
and disturb the dead. War was once more proclaimed, and 
the men thus suddenly assailed, placed themselves in an atti 
tude of defence. A number of missives were exchanged. One, 

* In America he rose to the rank of Major-General ; his brother entered 
the British service, and became Lieut.-Colonel of Hussars. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 14! 

signed, " E. Walker, Lieut. -Col.," dated i2th December, 1875, 
declared the Order in Council of 3rd July, 1869, to be "practic 
ally useless for the purpose for which it was required viz. : 
the stopping of burials in the Cemetery." 

The machinery of the Local Government Board was again set 
in motion, and a letter from Mr. Coyle, Secretary to the Catholic 
Cemeteries Committee, dated 2ist June, 1876, set forth: "A 
reference to the Order made by the Privy Council on July 3rd, 
1869, will show that Lieut. -Colonel Walker is mistaken ; for, 
although it appears that the statement then made to the Lord 
Lieutenant in Council by the Military authorities, was that 
burials in the Cemetery should be wholly discontinued, yet the 
arrangement agreed to, and approved of by the Privy Council, 
contains exceptions and qualifications as to the discontinuance of 
burials in the Cemetery. The Committee have instituted minute 
inquiries as to the manner in which burials have been carried 
on in the Cemetery since the date of the Order, and are satisfied 
that these exceptions and qualifications have been carefully 
attended to. It would appear that Lieut. -Colonel Walker, 
from Departmental correspondence antecedent to the pro 
ceedings, had formed some ideas of his own on the condition of 
the Cemetery, and he expresses his anxiety to reopen the 
subject closed by the Order of 1869, in the hope of obtaining 
a fresh order to shut up the Cemetery altogether." 

In the course of the long correspondence that followed, the 
Local Government Board forwarded at intervals, for the per 
usal of the Committee, sheafs of papers that had been sent by 
Colonel Walker to Dublin Castle, and thence passed on to the 
Local Government Board. At last a letter came, dated 24th 
August, 1876: "With reference to previous correspondence 
relative to the Golden Bridge Cemetery, the Local Government 
Board for Ireland desire to state, for the information of the 
Dublin Cemeteries Committee, that they have received a 
further file of papers on the subject from the Chief Secretary s 
Department, and that it appears that the Military authorities 
regard favourably the position in which this question has been 
placed, by the assurance of the Committee, in the arrangement 
suggested by the Local Government Board s Inspector viz. : 
to restrict future interments, in any part of the Cemetery, to 
the cases of those persons who have existing rights of interment 
reserved to them by the Order in Council." This, in fact, was 
the decision of the Privy Council in 1869; and in no one 
instance had the Catholic Cemeteries Board infringed the 



142 HISTORY OF THE 

order then made. The aggressive attitude of the military 
authorities had now, seemingly, given place to one of " favour 
able " recognition. It came, perhaps, as near to " a retreat in 
good order " as any military officer could well sanction. 

Thomas Neilson Underwood was a barrister of good family 
who, like Thomas Addis Emmet, threw himself into the ranks 
of the people. He took part in the Tenant Right movement, 
and in 1860, founded " St. Patrick s Brotherhood," a somewhat 
revolutionary organization. The Irishman, a leading popular 
organ, edited by P. J. Smyth, refused to support it, and, as a 
result, the circulation of the paper went down from 10,000 to 
2,500. Underwood contributed prose and verse to periodical 
literature. Mr. O Donoghue gives him a niche in "The Poets 
of Ireland." As author of a drama, " The Youthful Martyr," 
his name may also be added to the small bead roll of Irish 
playwrights. At his funeral, in Glasnevin, on October i5th, 
1876, the burial service of the Protestant Church was read 
over his remains. 

A letter addressed to Henry Richard, an English M.P., by 
A. M. Sullivan, M.P., casually mentions an incident chrono 
logically in place here. Mr. Richard had stated publicly that the 
burials question was about to engage the attention of Parliament, 
on the motion of Lord Granville. A. M. Sullivan writes : 
" Dublin, April 2oth, 1876 Dear Mr. Richard An hour ago 
standing with bared head beside the open grave of a dear and 
valued friend, a Protestant Dissenter, being interred in the great 
Catholic Cemetery of Ireland, (ilasne\ in, I realised more forcibly 
than ever I did before what the Nonconformist body in your 
country must feel in the matter of the burials question . 1 thought 
of you at that sad moment, and of our debate the other day on 
that question in the House of Commons, and I could not help 
thinking that if they could but have been with me just then to 
see and hear the truly respected Wesleyan Methodist minister 
discharge the last office of his sacred calling in the midst of a 
mourning and sympathetic crowd of Protestants, Catholics, and 
Dissenters, in a Catholic denominational Cemetery, many of 
our hon. colleagues who spoke and voted against Mr. Osborne 
Morgan s motion would never so speak or vote on such a motion 
again. My deceased friend was Mr. Thomas L. Stirling, T.C., 
of Tullamore, King s County ; the Nonconformist clergyman 
being Rev. G. R. Wedgewood, Wesleyan minister, Tullamore." 
John O Mahony, whose father and uncle had been impli 
cated in the Rebellion of 1798, attached himself to the Society 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 143 

of Young Ireland, and took the field with Smith O Brien in 
1848. He escaped to America, where he published, with 
copious annotations, a new translation of Keating s " History 
of Ireland," warmly praised for its accuracy by the learned 
Dr. Todd, and also by the author of "The Cromwellian Settle 
ment in Ireland." Keating s book describes the exploits of the 
Ancient Fenians, which probably led to the adoption of this 
name for a Secret Society, inaugurated by O Mahony, and 
aiming to promote the independence of Ireland. O Mahony 
was Colonel of the 6gth Regiment of New York Militia 
hence his title and would, as is usually supposed, occupy a 
similar rank in the Fenian army. He died in New York on 
February 6th, 1877. O Mahony is buried in the same plot with 
MacManusand Nally, in the south section, but no stone marks 
the spot. The intended monument, consisting of a group of 
statuary, on which Sir Thomas Farrell, P.R.H.A., personally 
expended ^"500, has not yet left his studio. 

O Mahony was followed a few days later by Professor 
Robertson, who had finished a book on "The Life and Writ 
ings of Burke," from which it is manifest that among the 
British statesmen and literati of the eighteenth century there 
was certainly no purer or nobler mind. Cardinal Cullen was 
greatly pleased with this work. Robertson, in a dedicatory 
address to His Kminence, said that he sought to analyse and 
vindicate the political views of Burke. Those institutions and 
fundamental laws which Burke defended on the ground of 
utility and expedience, were shown by Robertson to be ab 
solutely necessary, and to be founded on the very constitution of 
human society. Robertson s translation of SchlegePs " Philo 
sophy of History," and also of Moehler s "Symbolism," are 
much esteemed. He was a poet, too, and wrote, with other 
pieces, "The Prophet Enoch." When Dr. Newman became 
Rector of the Catholic University in Dublin, Robertson accepted 
its chair of Modern History and Fnglish Literature. He w r as a 
prominent figure in social circles. James Burton Robertson 
died, unmarried, i4th February, 1877, aged 80 years. 

Dr. Doyle (the famous "J. K. L."), who had long laboured 
to promote a legal provision for the starving poor, died in 
1834, an d his mantle may be said to have fallen on Thaddeus 
O Malley, a young priest from Garryowen, who, in public letters 
of much vigour, showed that a Poor Law would not, as alleged, 
dry up the springs of private bounty. Born in 1796, when the 
French fleet rode at anchor in Bantry Bay, his first mission 



144 HISTORY OF THE 

was in the Pro-Cathedral of the Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. 
Murray, whose views favouring National Education he ably 
sustained, and thus came in collision with Dr. MacHale. 
O Malley had the daring to grapple with the " Lion of the 
Fold of Judah," until Dr. Murray restrained him. He was 
subsequently appointed by the Government Rector of the 
University of Malta, and Sir George Cornwall Lewis expressed 
a hope that, under the administration of one who wrote such 
excellent Saxon, the students might become less Maltese 
and more English. Instead of applying himself to the task 
suggested, O Malley set on foot some reforms in discipline 
amongst the students. Disdaining to court popularity by 
connivance, a cabal was the result. " He was rebuked," 
writes John Cornelius O Callaghan, "for not yielding to the 
high behests of Protestant laymen in matters wholly pertaining 
to his ecclesiastical functions," and the virtue of "resignation," 
in its most extended sense, was suggested. This worry he 
tookgood-humouredly: called it a Maltese Cross, and returned 
to his old post at the Pro-Cathedral, in Dublin. He ventured 
to differ with O Connell on the comparative merits of " Repeal " 
or Federal Parliaments. This difference of opinion brought 
about a passionate debate between the old Tribune and the 
priest. O Malley started a newspaper called The Federalist- 
its career was brilliant and meteoric. When " Young Ireland" 
broke away from O Connell, he laboured to re-cement the 
shattered elements of Irish agitation. Two years later he 
founded another journal the Social Economist, which pro 
pounded bold theories. Like its editor, it was full of vivacity 
one column of facetia being regularly headed : " Sips of 
Punch." " Harmony in Religion " a volume which urged 
some reforms in ecclesiastical discipline though published 
anonymously, is known to have been the outcome of that 
fearless mind. Cardinal Cullen did not like it, and sharply 
told him so. Acting as chaplain to the Presentation nuns of 
George s Hill, the ex-Rector of the University of Malta spent 
the prime of his manhood. Years went on, during which his 
active mind knew no rest. He sought to make Home Rule 
feasible by his book, " Home Rule on the Basis of Federalism." 
He died in his 8ist year, and on January the 4th, 1877, his 
bier was borne to Glasnevin. "An honest man, a gentleman, 
and a scholar," writes Alfred Webb, M.P., "he was greatly 
beloved by a large circle of friends," 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




PATRICK CONNOLLY S MONUMENT CURRAN S SQUARE, 
GLASNEVJN CEMETERY. 



HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTER XIV. 



SOME previous details have been necessarily tinged with a 
sombre hue ; and the search-light may not come amiss in such 
further explorations as remain to be made. 

The Right Hon. James Henry Monahan, Lord Chief Justice 
of the Common Pleas in Ireland, and a successor on the judg 
ment seat to the punning Earl of Norbury, died, aged 74, on 
December 8th, 1878, and was buried in Glasnevin. Called to 
the Bar in 1828 the year before Emancipation elected to 
Parliament for Galway in 1846, he discharged the role of 
Solicitor and Attorney-General from 1847 to 1850 a period 
packed with exciting State trials notably, those of Smith 
O Brien, MacManus, Meagher, Mitchel, Gavan Duffy, and 
others. Some of the men he prosecuted to conviction now 
sleep beside him. "A thoroughly learned lawyer," writes 
Daniel Owen Maddyn, "he showed courage and calmness 
through the crisis." Ordinarily, he could crush without effort. 
As Chief Justice, he showed strength and self-restraint. He 
would sometimes pace up and down the bench like a caged 
lion ; and when he gave a roar, as he sometimes did, the walls 
of the court seemed to tremble. Fiat Justitia mat ccelum" Let 
justice be done though heaven should fall," was his motto. He 
was attacked by Brougham, and defended by Lansdowne. Peel 
patted him and stroked his mane. Some of the cases which he 
triedthat of Longworth v. Yelverton, to wit would afford 
the richest material for romance. Notwithstanding the ap 
parent roughness of his nature, Monahan possessed a heart 
of exquisite tenderness. The sexton of the Cemetery stated 
that every week the Chief lustice visited the grave of his wife ; 
and within the little chapel which he raised over her remains, 
would pour forth his soul in lamentation and prayer. 

We next come to Michael Angelo Hayes, R.H.A. His 
pictures, not less than his name, were familiar household 
words. His great strength lay in depicting subjects of military 
interest. While Petrie was painting "The Last Round of the 
Pilgrims at Clonmacnoise," Hayes put all his strength into 
"The Last Stand of the 44th Regiment at the Khyber Pass." 
The whole regiment was cut to pieces, but retribution came. 
Amongst his pictures, stamped with a spirit of vengeance as 
well as genius, was "The i6th Lancers Breaking the Square 
of the Sikh Infantry at Aliwal " ; "The Surprise of the 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




MEMORIAL CHAPEL OF THE RIGHT HON. J. H. MONAHAN, LORD 
CHIEF JUSTICE OF COMMON PLEAS, CURRAN s SQUARE 



14- HISTORY OF THE 

Vedettes" (from Kinglake s "Crimea"); "The Advance Guard 
on a Night March"; "The Balaclava Charge." His fine 
" Cartoons Illustrative of the Story of Savourneen Deelish ", 
" The Soldier s Chief Mourner " (a horse draped with crape, 
led after ^the coffin), "The Bold Soldier Boy," and "The 
Deserter," are well impressed on the memory. Many of his 
pictures have been engraved, including "The Old Soldier," 
namely, a spavined horse browsing on the roadside, which 
pricks up its ears on hearing the bugle of a cavalry regiment 
seen in the distance.* He was Lord Mayor s Secretary, 
before whom ladies scattered incense in the hope of obtaining 
cards for dances. He was City Marshal, clad in rich regi 
mentals, and rode at the head of civic processions. Having 
accompanied the Lord Mayor in state to the House of Com 
mons, some of the members, thinking that he was Lord Napier 
of Magdala, rose as he entered. He had the Viceroy s ear ; got 
the charter of the Royal Hibernian Academy enlarged, its 
members more than doubled, and its privileges widened. 
Hayes was great at figures, alike in art and arithmetic, and 
could use both gifts to disconcert a foe. One day in his own 
house, and without a moment s warning, death struck him 
down, and the palette fell from his hand. He went out with 
the old year the date of death being December 3ist, 1877 
his age 55. His father, Edward Hayes, R.H.A., a distin 
guished miniature painter, is also buried at Glasnevin. 

A tomb in the Garden Section, dated June ist, 1878, is in 
scribed to "Lieutenant-Colonel T. O Meara." He is well 
remembered as a near connection of Daniel O Connell, and one 
of the pleasantest of the men whose society served to lighten 
the tedium of the Great Agitator s imprisonment. 

Complaint had been made that the prices charged for burial 
in Prospect Cemetery pressed heavily on the poor. Cardinal 
MacCabe, then Bishop of Gadara, having called for and studied 
the charges made in various cemeteries, and specially those of 
Glasnevin, thus wrote in 1878, in respect to the latter: "By 

* In painting pictures of sporting life he was also happy. His " Meet of 
the Kildare Hounds," with 27 portraits, has been engraved, and arrests the 
eye in most Irish halls. The old and stereotyped attitude given to horses in 
full gallop he had the boldness to reject, and was the originator of a new pose 
the accuracy of which has been since proved by the instantaneous photography 
of an American artist. His " Patrick s Day at Dublin Castle," and "The 
Investiture of the Prince of Wales, " with hundreds of portraits, are also well 
known, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 149 

them it appears that, for a few pence, the poorest of the poor 
can secure for the remains of those they loved on earth, a grave 
hollowed out by reverent hands and blessed by the prayers of 
the Church. This is what we might expect from the character 
of the gentlemen who constitute the Board of Management. 

"4E. MACCABE." 

It was not until 1878 that the new entrance and mortuary 
chapel were completed, though the necessity for both had been 
long previously debated. The vast extension of the Cemetery 
in the southerly and westerly directions had gradually left the 
original entrance very distant ; and some persons felt that large 
processions of bare-headed mourners en route to an open grave 
was not without inconvenience. As the great interest of the 
Cemetery would always centre round the grandly dominating 
tomb of O Connell, it was deemed desirable by Mr. J. J. 
McCarthy, R.H.A., under whose direction the work was carried 
out, that this striking object should meet the eye immediately 
on entering. Near it a new mortuary chapel had been in 
course of erection, designed for the temporary reception of the 
dead, and the recital of the solemn prayers prescribed by the 
Church. On arrival of all funerals, entries became necessary 
in books kept for the purpose, as also the opening of communi 
cation with the undertaker in charge ot the cortege; and it 
was, therefore important that the staff and offices should be 
concentrated at this point. A gracefully-curved avenue leads 
from the entrance immediately in front of the mortuary chapel ; 
and, unlike most other cemeteries, a point of exit for the 
hearse and pall-bearers is found at some distance from the 
gate by which the funeral car entered. This new mortuary 
chapel, build at a cost of /"8,ooo, affords a fine specimen of 
the Romanesque style, introduced into Ireland during the 
ninth or tenth century, and said to have attained its perfection 
in the twelfth. 

"The distinctive character of the Romanesque churches in 
Ireland," observes the Rev. Dr. Mahaffy, F.T.C.D., " was their 
simple ground plan and diminutive size, their rich and delicate 
decoration, the lingering of horizontal forms, the retention of 
the inclined jambs of the primitive doors, and the constant use 
of certain ornamental designs, characteristic of the later Celtic 
period, which had been common to Britain and Ireland, before 
the Roman occupation of Britain." But the term " Romanesque" 
is, in truth, rather a wide one. Ruskin includes under the 
name "Gothic" all branches of Romanesque art. It had been 



150 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 





152 HISTORY OF THE 

at first intended to give the new mortuary chapel a stone roof 
like that of Cormac at Cashel, but the plan was relinquished 
chiefly owing to the expense it \vould entail. In 1879 it was 
dedicated by Archbishop MacCabe as "The Chapel of the 
Resurrection of Our Lord." Its exterior aspect is well known. 
Within, on stained glass windows, are represented, in rich 
tones of colour, subjects which bear reference to that con 
quest of death and all its woe accomplished upon Calvary. As 
the chapel is entered, the incident related in the Gospels, of 
how, at the Divine Word, those whom death had seized were 
given back to life, are presented at one side of the nave. On 
approaching the transept we see how the great Sacrifice on the 
Cross atoned for the sins of mankind. In the semicircle around 
the chancel, or sanctuary, the joyful subject of how a passage 
to a blissful Eternity was opened by the victory of the Son of 
God over death, is depicted. His triumphant ascension, His 
apostles looking on, shown in the second transept, recalls the 
promise that so shall He come. The plan finds completion in 
a representation over the porch, of the Day of Judgment. In 
keeping with the period and style of the architecture, the orna 
mentation is quite characteristic. Under some of the windows 
monumental brasses are inserted, inscribed to the memory of 
men whose relations lovingly recommend them to the prayers 
of the pilgrim. 

Morgan M. Darcy was nephew to the man whose inter 
rupted obsequies at St. Kevin s churchyard led to the projection 
of a Catholic Cemetery. He died in London, June 23rd, 1878, 
aged 72. This gentleman was the nephew of an eminent pulpit 
orator, the Rev. Morgan Darcy, whose oration in 1802, on the 
death of Father Arthur O Leary, has often been reprinted. 

Two days later was buried Jeremiah John Murphy, one of 
the old Masters in Chancery, a sound equity lawyer, who suc 
ceeded in 1846 to Thomas Goold. O Connell, as father of 
the Catholic Bar, obtained from the Government the favour of 
Murphy s appointment to this position. He died June 25th, 
1878, aged 75. 

A good type of the Irish gentleman was James Scully, one 
of the representatives of Denys Scully, author of "The State 
ment of the Penal Laws which Aggrieve the Catholics of 
Ireland." He was buried on December 7th, 1878. 

The funeral of John Quinlan, on February 5, 1879, was 
one of the first to pass through the new entrance. Few men 
were better known. He wrote for the Press previous to Emanci- 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



153 







f If f|g|j| 






VIEW OF MORTUARY CHAPEL, GLASNEVIN .CEMETERY 



154 HISTORY OF THE 

pation ; was Irish correspondent for the Times during the 
thirties; but one morning the "Thunderer" pealed a startling 
change of policy, and Quinlan resigned. The Morning Chronicle 
was then the leading Liberal organ, and Quinlan accepted a 
similar position on that journal. He succeeded Frederick \Vm. 
Conway as editor of the Dublin Evening Post ; and during an 
eventful period, advanced by his advocacy the Liberal cause. 

Professor Henry Tyrrell, F.R.C.S.I., a gold medallist and 
skilful operator, and an acute writer on professional points, of 
whom a memoir appears in "Cameron s History of the College 
of Surgeons," was buried here on January 2nd, 1879. 

The profession of medicine lost a gifted son, and the Board 
of Glasnevin Cemetery a respected member in the death of Sir 
Dominic Corrigan, Bart., on February ist, 1 880. He was created 
a Baronet in recognition not only of the professional eminence 
he attained, but also on account of his great public services in 
connection with the health and education of the people. 

Another medical light went out some days later. Few 
faces were better known than that of Dr. O Leary, M.P. He 
passed away after a brief illness in London where he was 
engaged in the discharge of Parliamentary duties at the com 
paratively early age of 42, on i5th February, 1880. 

A few days later came the sad cortege of a true child of song, 
Ellen O Hea, better known by her professional name, Helena 
Norton. She died on 2gth February, 1880. 

Francis Morgan, Law Agent to the Corporation of Dublin, 
who died March 15, 1879, aged 73, had previously figured in 
the field of agitation as one of the most active of O Connell s 
A.D.C. s. " Morgan s Rental of the Estates of the Corporation 
of Dublin, with Historical Memoirs of the Corporate Title to 
Each Denomination," will prove a great aid to future historians, 
especially when it is known that Sir John T. Gilbert, LL.D., 
F.S.A, revised the dates. Sir Richard Griffith publicly lauded 
Morgan s labours as " valuable and important." 

The funeral of Wm. Rickard Burke, Assistant Inspector-Gen 
eral of the Royal Irish Constabulary, who probably had at one 
time in his pocket a warrant for Morgan s arrest, was followed by 
long lines of the well-disciplined force he had ruled a feature 
which relieved the monotony of the ordinary funeral. Burke 
died January igth, 1880. 

A handsome Celtic cross, erected by the family of Sir 
Thomas Redington in acknowledgment of the services rendered 
as legal adviser to two generations of their race, records the 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 155 

death on St. Patrick s Day, 1880, of Vesey Daly, Clerk of the 
Crown for Donegal. He is well remembered as a genial Irish 
gentleman of the old school, popular in his profession, and a 
favourite in society. He had married the sister of Sir Christopher 
Bellew, Bart. 

The organ of the old Tory party, against w T hich Conway 
and Ouinlan waged relentless war, was the Evening Mail, and 
between the latter and the Post a fusilade, often swelling into 
heavy broadsides, was steadily interchanged. The Mail 
opposed O Connell not less consistently than it did the Catholic 
Church in Ireland, which it described as "Popery," It was 
a curious climax to see the Catholic burial service read over 
Tom Sheehan s body* by a Priest, his own brother, Monsignor 
Sheehan of Cork. When he fell ill at his handsome residence, 
Mespil House, he sent for the Rev. David Mulcahy, who did 
all he could to smooth his passage to a kingdom not of this 
world. The inscription on Sheehan s tomb reads that he died 
on Lady Day, March 25, 1880. 

A determined foe of Sheehan in the political arena had been 
Richard O Gorman, whose burial took place nth November, 
1 867. Allusion has already been made to the fact that he accom 
panied O Connell to the lonely field in Kildare, and witnessed 
the fatal duel between him and Mr. D Esterre. He was the 
brother of Nicholas Purcell O Gorman, Secretary of the 
Catholic Association, and afterwards Chairman of Kilkenny ; 
but he surpassed Purcell in energy and fire; and more than 
once it became evident that he loved Ireland not wisely but 
too well. His son, who joined the party of Young Ireland, was 
tried for high treason, and eventually became Attorney-General 
of New York. 

Thomas Mathew Ray, a talented and popular gentleman, 
was known formerly by the sobriquet "My Dear Ray," from 
the mode in which O Connell constantly addressed him in 
public letters. His career was in some respects remarkable. 
He was one of the "Repeal Martyrs" of 1843, and underwent 
imprisonment with O Connell. Twenty years after the death of 
his old friend, the " Liberator," Earl Russell appointed Mr. 
Ray to the post of Registrar of Deeds. The Recording Angel 
had nought to register but good deeds after the name of Ray. 
He was interred at Glasnevin on January 5th, 1881. 

* Sheehan succeeded Haydn, editor of the "Dictionary of Dates," as 
editor of the Mail. 



156 HISTORY OF THE 

Robert Cryan, a Fellow of the College of Physicians, and 
an able lecturer on anatomy and physiology, was laid to rest 
on February igth, 1881. 

The Rev. Dr. John T. Laphen rests in Glasnevin. Dr. 
Laphen on being transferred from the Pro- Cathedral to St. 
Catherine s, Meath Street, found a relic of penal times in its 
old chapel. By dint of great energy he built a handsome new 
church at a cost of ^"11,000. It was pleasingly remarked at 
the time by his curate, afterwards Canon Daniel, that "This 
church, however beautiful, is but a material emblem of the 
spiritual temple of holiness that the good priest had raised up 
in the hearts and souls of his people." Among other worthy 
deeds due to Dr. Laphen, is that of having restored the tomb 
of Fr. Austin, S.J., in St. Kevin s churchyard.* 

Quite a sensation was caused by the premature death on 
April 1 5th, 1881, of Denis Caulfield Heron, Q.C., LL.D., 
Sergeant-at-Law, M.F. for Tipperary. He was a skilful 
pleader, a brilliant orator, a trusted friend. When standing in 
the waters of Lough Corrib, after having landed two salmon, 
and while playing a third, the rod fell from his hand ; death 
promptly followed. His coif he had worn only for three months. 
Heron had been a member of the Board of Glasnevin Cemetery; 
and a more than passing reference is due to him apart from 
the fact that he had long held a distinguished place in public 
and professional life. In 1845 he passed an examination for a 
Scholarship in the University of Dublin; but being a Catholic 
was denied the privileg;e. His next move was an applica 
tion for a mandamus against the Board of Trinity College to 
compel them to yield ; but the action failed. However, it bore 
fruit, for after some time the law was altered, and Catholics 
can now be Fellows as well as Scholars. Heron became Pro 
fessor of Law in Queen s College, Galway, and besides his 
"History of Jurisprudence," was the author of several political 
and economical works. One of his first promotions at the 
Bar was to the Law Advisership of Dublin Castle. He mar 
ried the sister of Lord Fitzgerald, but she predeceased him, 
and left no children. She was returning to her home when she 
breathed her last on board the mail boat, in sight of the 

* Bunden, who published a tour through Ireland in 1791, tells us that 
" Austin was a very remarkable character, of extraordinary learning and 
piety. Most of the Catholic youth of Dublin received their education under 
him, including O Keeffe, the dramatist." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 157 

Irish shore. His epitaph on this lady is one in Latin. The 
monument is found in the South Section: "In memoriam 
Emiliae D. C. Heron, dilectissimae conjugis morbum saevum 
pectoris per longos annos humiliter ac pia fortitudine 
patiebatur. Rediens ex Helvetia ubi sanitatem frustra 
quserebat in navi Munster carae patriae Hiberniae in con- 
spectu subito mortua est XXX. Aug., MDCCCLXIII. Nunquam 
erat in terris anima magis pura." 

Two days later another funeral of some interest entered the 
grounds. The old medico who wore the broad-brimmed hat of 
a bishop, and the white cravat of a Brummel, was a familiar 
figure in Dublin from the days of George the Third. The 
favourite post of Dr. Thomas Willis was at book sales, or by 
the bedside of the sick poor. When sales in the Incumbered 
Estates Court began, men pronounced Willis mad, because of 
his persistent regularity in gathering up the rentals* which 
some threw away; and his collection after thirty years be 
came so important, that the Crown were glad to buy it at 
a high price. These rentals, accompanied by an alphabetical 
index, exceed 3,700 in number; but the wonderful hoards of 
Dr. Willis were of more varied interest. Throughout a long 
life his attention had been directed to the acquisition of all 
sorts of books relating to Irish affairs, whether of historical, 
local, or general interest. He used to relate that Charles 
Reade, the novelist, opened communication with him in 
regard to curious matter calculated to sustain the interest of 
his novels. Dr. Madden, in his "History of Irish Periodic 
Literature," avows his obligation to Willis. His volumes of 
newspaper-cuttings were ranged like a cyclopaedia. All his 
books had curious MS. notes in the autograph of the indefat 
igable collector. Dr. Thomas Willis died, aged 91, on April 
i7th, 1881. 

Captain Morgan O Connell, grandson of the Liberator, 
A.D.C. to General the Hon. Leicester Smythe, Commanding 
the Forces at the Cape of Good Hope, was cut off on the thresh 
old of a promising career, 22nd September, 1881, aged 35. 

During the same year (3oth October, 1881), Dr. Thomas 
Hayden, F.R. C.S.I., of whom a full memoir has appeared from 

* These rentals, furnished with maps, contain a mass of local statistics, 
together with a deduction of title to the estates, commencing at a very early 
period. The explanations of Irish names attached to the lands show that they 
arose from some distinguishing feature belonging to each. Dr. Willis s 
granddaughter is married to the Rt. Hon. Joseph Meade, LL.D, 



58 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 159 

the pen of Sir Charles Cameron, was buried at Glasnevin. He 
had been Vice-President of the College of Physicians, and at 
the time of his death Vice-President of the Royal Irish 
Academy, and a Senator of the Royal University. He wrote 
for the Atlantis, under the cultured editorship of Newman, and 
probed his pen deep into the subjects of anatomy, physiology, 
and pathology. His great book on " Diseases of the Heart 
and Aorta" is of vastly comprehensive range. 

Edmund Jordan, Q.C., Crown Prosecutor for Galway, was a 
learned lawyer, a hospitable host, and highly esteemed for his 
many admirable qualities. He died on 8th March, 1882, 
aged 66. 

James J. MacCarthy was the famous architect of whom it 
will be remembered Florence MacCarthy said : "Jem an I 
(Gemini) are twins." The fine mortuary chapel, which we owe 
to his skill, contained his own coffin on February 8th, 1882. 
Like the " Corsican Brothers," the lives of both MacCarthys 
were much bound together; and it is remarkable that within the 
same week the poet followed the architect. The chief ecclesi 
astical edifices designed by the latter are the Cathedrals at 
Armagh and Monaghan ; the parish churches of Rathkeale 
and Carrickmacross ; the Dominican church, Dublin; that of 
the Seminary of Clonliffe, and the Passionists Retreat, Mount 
Argus ; St. Catherine s Meath Street ; the College chapel at 
Maynooth, and St. Mary s Star of the Sea, Sandymount. 

A pleasant personality, John King Forest, M.D., Surgeon 
to Jervis Street Hospital, and to the Theatre Royal, Dublin, 
passed away on April lyth, 1882, aged 78 years. He had a 
fund of gossip about people he had known. 



i6o 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES l6l 



CHAPTER XV. 



IN April, 1882, Ireland was the poorer by what she could ill 
spare a man of genius ; her greatest poet (Moore alone ex- 
cepted), ceased his strains. But Denis Florence MacCarthy 
had an eye for beauty too far-seeing, and a mind and heart too 
large to confine his Muse within the sea-girt isle of Erin. His 
first volume : " Ballads, Poems, and Lyrics," embraced trans 
lations from nearly all modern European tongues, including 
some from Andre Chenier, while the Chevalier de Chatelain, 
in turn, delighted French readers with translations from the 
purely Irish poems of MacCarthy. His " Bell Founder," 
" The Pillar Towers of Ireland," " The Voyage of St. Brendan," 
" The Foray of Con O Donnell," " Under Glimpses," followed in 
rapid succession. But it was his translation of Calderon s dramas 
from the Spanish into English blank verse with a learned 
introduction and sparkling notes on which his European fame 
will rest. Ticknor, author of " The History of Spanish Litera 
ture," says that MacCarthy had executed the task to a degree 
of perfection which he had previously supposed impossible ; 
and another eminent Hispaniologist, Mr. Bradford, has ex 
pressed himself in similar terms. MacCarthy was elected a 
member of the " Real Academia " of Spain, and received 
from them a medal " in token of their gratitude and apprecia 
tion." " It seems as if Calderon were behind him -whispering 
and suggesting," said Longfellow.* MacCarthy, like Moore, 
wrote good prose as well as poetry, of which statement Shelley s 
Early Life " affords an illustration. MacCarthy was a bad 
financier, and though once opulent, his gold strangely melted 
away. After wandering in many lands, MacCarthy took a 
cottage at the corner of Sydney Avenue, Blackrock, and play 
fully styled it " Poet s Corner." He had not fully unpacked 
and arranged his books, when death gently removed him on 
Good Friday, April yth, 1882. May has been always a favourite 

* Longfellow s death and that of MacCarthy occurred within a few days of 
each other, 



162 



HISTORY OF THE 




MONUMENT ERECTED BY PUBLIC SUBSCRIPTION TO THOS. H. BURKE, 
UNDER SECRETARY FOR IRELAND, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 163 

month with poets, and by none was it more loved than by him 
who sang : 

" O my heart is weary waiting waiting for the May." 

And again : 

" Welcome May ! welcome May ! 
Thou hast been too long away, 

All the widow d wint ry hours. 
Wept for thee, sweet, gentle May : 
Hut the fault was only ours 
We were sad when thou wert gay." 

No wonder George Gilfillan should declare his special admi 
ration for MacCarthy s "joyous, sunny, lark-like carols on 
May, almost worthy of Shelley." Our poet died in sight of 
May just as the hawthorns around him were bursting into 
leaf. 

The cruel and infamous deed done on May the 6th, in 1882, 
by which the green turf, whereon MacCarthy loved to stroll, was 
reddened, would have torn the poet s heart. He knew the Under 
Secretary, Thomas H. Burke, and admired Lord Frederick 
Cavendish. This is not the place to write an account of an 
outrage so recent and so appalling. The bell tolls ; the chaplain 
adjusts his stole; the mangled remains are borne into Glasnevin 
Cemetery ; a solemn service is recited ; the grave is covered ; 
and a splendid Celtic cross now rears its head above the grave 
of him who had long been, practically, the Government of 
Ireland. 

Near the place in which Mr. Burke s remains are laid, is a 
handsome monument designed by Sir Thomas Drew, Architect, 
and surmounted by a. facsimile of the Cross of Cong. It was 
raised by many friends in appreciation of his high character and 
general public services. On the opposite side of the walk, in 
the South Section, is the tomb of his father, William Burke, 
a chivalrous Irish gentleman of the old school. Why the 
murdered man refused a knighthood is due to the fact that 
he was next heir to the old Baronetcy of Glinsk. His brother, 
Augustine Burke, R.H.A., was a very distinguished artist. 

Close to it is the family vault of Dr. Thomas Hamilton 
Burke, late Local Government Board Inspector, and famous 
in early life as an amateur actor. 

In the same vicinity is found the Jesuits old burial plot, in 
which repose the Rev. Sir Christopher Bellew, Bart. ; Father 



164 



HISTORY OF THE 




c/) W 

<! IS 

S W 

o u 

H ^ 



I 

S j 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 165 

Esmonde, brother of the late Right Hon. Sir Thomas Esmonde, 
Bart. ; Fathers Seaver, St. Leger, and Michael Bellew, &c. 
Behind it is the neatly enclosed burial place of " Les Soaurs de 
Bon Secours." Seventeen tombs record the too early deaths of 
these devoted ladies. 

" Frank Thorpe Porter, that upholder of the laws " as he is 
styled in a popular ballad * will be remembered less, perhaps, 
as an active magistrate of " the Head Office of Police," than 
as the bon vaconteuv and pleasant versifier. Though gone yet, 
happily, he is still with us : for his " Gleanings and Reminis 
cences " which have passed through more than one edition 
remain an undying source of keen enjoyment. Porter s recol 
lections went a long way back : his father, a sergeant in 
the Irish Volunteers, is depicted with the Duke of Leinster, 
Charlemont, and other once familiar faces, in Wheatly s well- 
known picture of the memorable review in College Green. 
Major Sirr died in 1841, and Porter became police magistrate 
soon after. We read in the "Arabian Nights" that, when 
somebody spoke, pearls rolled forth. When Porter wrote a 
letter it was found that though seemingly prose, it was really 
verse. Here is a chance sample : Porter had received an 
invitation to dine on St. Patrick s day : 

" 15 UPPER MERRION STREET, 

"March 17th, 1874. 

" DEAR FITZ. With much pleasure your kind invitation, 
at once I accept, in the anticipation that the Saint, with whose 
name yours is closely connected, on his festival day, when your 
friends are collected, will over our meeting his blessing extend. 
Believe me that such is the hope of your friend, 

"F. T. PORTER." 

Among Porter s graver recreations was his " Life of Sister 
Rosalie of the Order of Charity." He died on November 24th, 
1882, aged 81, and was buried at Glasnevin on the 2yth of the 
same month. 

Amongst other police magistrates who rest in this Cemetery 
are Hugh O Callaghan, D.L. ; George Wyse, brother of the 
Minister at Athens, and joint author of the History of the 
Catholic Association ; Daniel MacDermott, and W illiam 
W oodlock. 



* "The Lower Castle Yard, 



1 66 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 167 

A somewhat kindred spirit followed Porter on December 
1 3th, 1882. John Stewart Stevenson preceded Sir John Gray 
as editor of the Freeman s Journal, and, like Gray, he also was a 
Protestant. He reached the advanced age of 78, and had 
many pleasant memories of the men he had known. Stevenson, 
though a man of talent, lacked the energy which was so con 
spicuous in Gray. Martin Haverty, Stevenson s colleague on 
the Freeman, said that he sometimes found him dozing in the 
editorial chair, and if its occupant found himself short of a 
"leader." would say: "Go down to Willy, and see if he can 
give you anything." " Willy " was the subsequent Right Hon. 
Mr. Justice Keogh, who then lived in Mecklenburgh Street. 
Stevenson closed his career as Secretary to the Alliance Gas 
Company. 

The Weekly Telegraph acquired some importance from having 
been established by John Sadlier and William (Judge) Keogh. 
John Douglas Piercey, who died, aged 83, on January 2gth, 
1883, edited this journal for many years. An Englishman 
of good family, he was disinherited by opulent parents, for 
having embraced, as they said, " the errors of Rome." He 
felt this sentence the more acutely from the contrast it 
presented to early luxury. When proceeding to Germany 
for his studies, a carriage was sent with him to use whenever 
he felt so disposed. Vicissitude was well completed at his 
death. Fortune smiled on his cradle ; but the luxurious cot 
of childhood gave place to a truckle bed in the crowded ward 
of Simpson s Hospital an asylum for friendless men. 

" The Strollers Club " is fraught with memories of feast 
and song, which scarcely harmonise with the graveyard and 
its surroundings. Thomas Fagan, Registrar of the Court of 
Bankruptcy, was buried here in 1883. One recalls, where all 
is silent, that this man is described by the President of the 
Club as the readiest and happiest after-dinner speaker it has 
known. The more purely scientific musicians loudly praised 
him for his great skill and voice of extensive compass. He 
constantly visited Germany in search of new lieder, and 
translated them into English words, and these songs are 
treasured as amongst the best in the repertoire of the Strollers 
Club. Some words, though excellent poetry, " won t sing." 
Fagan knew exactly the form in which to put them. His 
return from the " Vaterland " was always eagerly hailed and 
festively celebrated. His last journey to the bourne from 
whence no traveller returns, was attended by troops of sad- 



1 68 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 169 

dened men. A stone will be found to the memory of Fagan in 
the South Section, adjoining that to the Countess Nugent. 

From youth to age it was the creed of John Cornelius 
O Callaghan that, a country without a history was like a religion 
without scripture. An eager and ardent student, especially 
of historical literature, he devoured, with avidity, all sorts of 
books. His marvellous memory and keen acumen enabled him 
to accept and assimilate the mental food thus swallowed 
food which, to one with less powers of digestion, would have 
proved too heavy a meal. He lived amidst books and manu 
scripts ; was never more at home than when grubbing amongst 
old parchments, disinterring old documents long buried and 
hidden away, and unravelling the mysteries and myths of 
History by searching libraries, which he called the catacombs 
of literature, and burying himself in muniment chests and 
dusty archives. The results he gave to the world in the 
shape of historical works of high value. A member of the 
Comet Club having mainly for its object the reform of the 
State Church his first essays appeared in the Comet : a journal 
which, as John Wilson Croker remarked, "exhibited public 
proofs that its labours were not frivolous or unproductive." 
In 1841 appeared " The Green Book " ; in 1842 he joined the 
staff of the Nation an incident commemorated by Sir Gavan 
Duffy in " Young Ireland." When Macaulay visited this 
country in quest of information bearing on the Jacobite and 
Williamite wars, he expressed a wish to consult O Callaghan. 
The Macavice Excidium, which O Callaghan edited at the request 
of the Archaeological Society, will remain a lasting monument 
of his erudition, ability, and laboriousness. His greatest w r ork, 
however, was the " History of the Irish Brigade in the 
Service of France," to which he devoted twenty-five years of 
his life. In grasping this task he strained every nerve like 
the men described by Davis in that wonderful charge at 
Ramilies, when : 

" The victor Saxon backward reeled 

Before the charge of Clare s Dragoons ! " 

The work covers the period from James s abdication to the death 
of the Young Pretender. O Callaghan, powerful as a conversa 
tionalist, was simply wonderful in monologue, and reminded one 
of Johnson at his best. O Callaghan died on April 24th, 1883. 
He left, by will, ^50 to a priest and ^"50 to a parson, for such 
charities as each should select and name. 



I 7 HISTORY OF THE 



The loth of April, 1883, witnessed a very picturesque scene 
at Glasnevin. The body of General Andrew Browne, C.B., of 
Moy villa Castle, Galway borne on a gun-carriage, lent by the 
military authorities, wheeled up the curved walk. This was a 
great privilege. 

Robert Dwyer Joyce, M.D., won laurels as a poet. In 1861 
appeared his " Ballads, Romances, and Songs." His later writ 
ings were published at Boston, U.S.A., and included, " Deirdre," 
a poetical version of the ancient Celtic romance. " The Children 
of Usna," of which David O Donoghue records that 10,000 
copies were sold in a few days ; " Blanid," "Ballads of Irish 
Chivalry," "Legends of the Wars in Ireland," and "Irish 
Fireside Tales "the last two being prose. He settled as a 
physician at Boston, where he enjoyed a successful practice. 
Finding himself near his end, however, he wended his way 
homeward, and died in Dublin, on October 24th, 1883, aged 
53, having been engaged, some days previously, on another 
epic poem, " The Courtship of Etaise." 

A semi-military funeral was seen on July loth, 1885. James 
Fdmond Williams, Inspector-General of the Army Medical 
Department, was the son of Captain Williams, whose death at 
the Battle of Salamanca is touchingly described in Napier s 
" History of the Peninsular War," (v., p. 105). 

A remarkable monument of great beauty, designed and 
executed with much artistic skill, bearing date May 24th, 1886, 
was raised by the Right Hon. Joseph M. Meade to the memory 
of his father. Crowned by a striking statue, in white marble, 
of St. Michael the Archangel, it stands out quite unique in its 
character, close to the O Connell tower. 

Morgan O Connell, one of the Liberator s sons, who had 
been for some years a Registrar of Deeds, died on 2oth lanuarv 
1885. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



171 




THE MEADE MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTER XVI. 

FEW men were more prominent than Peter Paul MacSwiney, 
twice Lord Mayor of Dublin, Knight of St. Gregory the Great, 
and Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He was buried at 
Glasnevin, on the ist March, 1884. 

A light was extinguished in the Irish Court when James 
Stannus Hughes died. The science of Medicine lost a gifted 
and devoted son by his death. He wrote ably on disease, as 
appears from Cameron s " History of the College." It is added 
that, " his bland manners acquired for him many friends." 
James Stannus Hughes was the brother of Baron Hughes. 
He filled for many years the post of Surgeon to the Viceregal 
Household, and previously was Secretary to the College of 
Surgeons. His death, on June ist, 1884, came startlingly 
sudden. 

On October ist following, Michael O Shaughnessy, Q.C., 
County Court Judge for Clare, was buried. He was one of 
the first Catholics who received promotion after the Emanci 
pation Bill of 1829. A most interesting man ; his recollections 
of the past it was a treat to hear. He remembered boats plying 
between Holies Street and Leinster House, owing to the 
inundations of the Liffey, and would describe the emotions with 
which he read posted on the gate of Trinity College an 
account of the success of the allied armies at Waterloo. 

Alexander Martin Sullivan, who died on October lyth, 1884, 
was, in many respects, a remarkable man. He succeeded Sir 
Gavan Duffy as editor of the Nation, and, like him, was subjected 
to more than one State prosecution. A National Testimonial 
was started, which he refused to accept, and though a poor man, 
he bestowed ^"300 as an initiatory subscription to the statue of 
Grattan by Foley, subsequently erected in front of the old House 
of Parliament in College Green. He contested Louth against 
Chichester Fortescue, who had great personal, political, and pro 
prietorial influence in that county and beat him. In Parliament 
his brilliant talents won speedy recognition. There, as else 
where, he made many personal friends, and every friend of his 
he sought to make also a friend of Ireland. He got for Dublin 
the beautiful Museum of Science and Art. His " New Ireland" 
was the book of the Season ; his " Story of Ireland " rivetted 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 173 

the attention of Englishmen by its picturesque and stirring 
style. He visited America, and published a portion of his 
travels, especially in connection with Wyoming. In 1877 the 
Benchers of the Inner Temple conferred on him the exceptional 
compliment of a " Special Call to the English Bar." To 
temperance he was attached with all the fervour of a belief that 
in it lay the secret of a social regeneration. In England, as 
well as Ireland, he was the premier apostle of a reform which 
his own life example enforced. In October, 1884, the eloquent 
voice, which had pleaded on many remarkable occasions for 
Faith and Fatherland, was hushed ; the busy pen that so 
graphically traced the joys and sorrows the triumphs and 
reverses of his race, fell from that guileless hand. His funeral, 
at Glasnevin, was attended by men who had differed widely with 
him on religious and political points. 

" That speech recalls Grattan at his best," said Mr. Disraeli 
sotto voce, after one of P. J. Smyth s elaborate orations. He 
had formed his style on the models of eighteenth century 
eloquence, and Disraeli often came down to the House for the 
purpose of hearing him. " One of the best arguments against 
Repeal," said Lord Beaconsfield, " is the fact that the House 
of Commons could not afford to lose Mr. Smyth." His earlier 
education was received at Clongowes College, where he formed 
with T. F. Meagher an intimacy destined to be an overmas 
tering influence on the future life of both. The youthful orator 
embarked in the Young Ireland movement, and gave forth that 
eloquence which bore favourable comparison with the best 
outbursts of the eighteenth century tinged, no doubt, by its 
artifice ; but also full of its fire. Smyth took the hill-side with 
Smith O Brien, in Tipperary. Several Young Irelanders were 
sent into penal servitude, but Smyth, disguised as a drover, 
escaped to America. Mitchell had been for some years suffer 
ing penal exile when Smyth conceived the romantic idea of 
effecting his rescue. Smyth, who had inherited ample means 
from his father, chartered a ship to Tasmania, and discovered 
Mitchell, who had been allowed at large on parole. Both pre 
sented themselves, armed, at the official residence of the police 
magistrate ; Mitchell handed in a resignation of his parole ; the 
justice stood scared by the suddenness of the intrusion, while 
Smyth and Mitchell remounted their horses and, after many 
adventures, arrived in the United States. The enterprise was 
discussed by the Press with the zest of a highly-spiced romance. 
Opinions differed as to whether Mitchell kept within the bounds 



174 HISTORY OF THE 

of honour ; but no one could fail to recognise the devoted 
friendship of Smyth, and the daring and adventurous spirit 
which he showed. 

Smyth was not the man to make a matter-of-fact marriage. 
He met his wife in Tasmania, and he found uninterrupted 
happiness in her companionship. In 1871 he was returned to 
Parliament for Westmeath, which he continued to represent 
for nine years. Meanwhile, Mitchell received permission to 
return, and was elected Member of Parliament for Tipperary. 
Among other important boons wrung by Smyth from the 
Legislature was the repeal of the Convention Act, and he had 
very nearly obtained the restoration of the Irish Volunteers. 
" As uncompromising opponents of his principles and party," 
writes the Daily Express, " we watched his struggles with the 
more interest, because he was always an open, manly, and 
honourable foe ; and we could not but sympathise with him in 
his earnest, but hopeless struggle against the tyranny and suf 
fering which, we believe, ultimately broke his heart." This 
alludes to the persistency with which he denounced the Land 
League. Democrats accused him of having deserted his 
principles ; but Smyth retorted that it was the followers of the 
League, not he, who deserted them. His last appearance in 
public was at the College Philosophical Society, when he de 
livered a telling speech. Leaving the heated hall for the cold 
night air, he contracted a chill, and never left his bed alive. 
He died on January i2th, 1885, aged 64. The Marchioness 
of Queensbery, Lord Douglas, and Lady Dixie were among 
those who contributed to the wreaths and crosses which covered 
his coffin. 

The funeral of Thomas, Lord O Hagan, K.P. the first 
Catholic Lord Chancellor since the Revolution was one of the 
solemn incidents of 1885. The remains had arrived from 
England for interment in Glasnevin, and were accompanied by 
Lady O Hagan, Colonel MacDonnell, and Mr. Cashel Hoey, 
who, soon after, passed away himself. The cortege, before 
arriving at the Cemetery, was met by the Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, Mr. (now Sir) Courtney Boyle, Ross of Bladensburgh, 
A.D.C., and Major Byng, A.D.C., afterwards Lord Torrington. 
Amongst the chief mourners were Lord Abingdon, Lord Lennox, 
Lord Norreys, Lord E. Talbot, and Mr. Justice O Hagan, 
whose own funeral followed ere long. Lord Spencer also 
walked with the chief mourners. The Provost of Trinity 
College, with a great number of bishops and judicial person- 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



175 







VERY REV. DR. CAHILL s MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



176 HISTORY OF THE 

ages, attended. The burial took place on February 6th, 1885. 
Lord Chancellor O Hagan was reputed to have been the finest 
orator of his day, and his orations on " Irish Music," on 
" Moore," and many other National themes, will not soon pass 
into oblivion. These cultured efforts have been collected and 
edited by Mr. George Teeling. 

Within a few weeks, namely, on March gth, 1885, another 
public funeral was seen traversing the route to Glasnevin. The 
hearse on this occasion bore the ashes of Rev. Dr. Cahill, a dis 
tinguished scientist and pulpit orator, who had died in America 
twenty years before. It was drawn by six horses, escorted 
by outriders. The site for Dr. Cahill s grave, in which his 
remains are interred, was granted free by the Committee of 
the Cemetery. 

The name of Cardinal MacCabe, Archbishop of Dublin, 
occurs in the list of those who paid the last tribute of respect 
to the memory of Lord O Hagan. Seven days later the 
Cardinal s funeral cortege was seen wending its way from his late 
residence at Kingstown, to the Pro-Cathedral, Dublin. Here 
the remains lay in state. The walls were draped in black and 
white ; the floor was covered with crimson cloth, which con 
trasted effectively with the funereal aspect of the church The 
throne, so often occupied by the dead Cardinal, was draped with 
crape the black vestments; the shrouded pulpit; the cata 
falque, with its burthen ; suggested so much that was sad and 
touching, and the solemn notes of the Requiem, made the 
occasion one not soon to be forgotten. On the coffin lay the 
scarlet biretta ; at its foot reposed the Cardinal s hat. His last 
words were a request that he might be buried without pomp, 
and in "the poor ground" at Glasnevin. The procession, 
however, took half a day to reach the Cemetery, on iyth 
February, 1885, and, though the ground was covered with 
snow and slush, many thousands followed on foot. It so 
happens that what was the poor ground, soon after the Ceme 
tery was established, faces the present new entrance, and the 
right of burial in graves there had not been acquired. Here it 
was that the site for the repose of the remains of His Eminence 
was selected and freely granted by the Cemeteries Committee, 
and over the plot a remarkable monument to the Cardinal 
designed by Sir Thomas Drew, Architect, and sculptured by 
the chisel of Sir Thomas Farrell arrests attention. The 
ground, once remote and obscurely situated, is now the 
reverse, and contains as well as other striking objects 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 177 




* - 






RIGHT HON. LORD O HAGAN 



178 HISTORY OF THE 

the Mortuary chapel, previously dedicated by the Cardinal 
himself.* 

Charlotte Duchesse de Saldanha, mother-in-law of Mr. 
Goulbourne Walpole, was borne to Glasnevin, 2yth January, 
1886. 

Lady Kane was buried ist March, 1886. As Miss Kate 
Baily, she won distinction by her " Irish Flora," a clever book 
on botany, used as a class-book in Trinity College. Her uncle, 
Francis Baily, was Vice-President of the Royal Society, and 
one of the founders of the Astronomical Society, whose "Life" 
has been written by Sir John Herschel. Her mother was the 
sister of Mathias O Kelly, who did so much for the Cemeteries 
of Glasnevin and Golden Bridge. Miss Baily became the wife 
of Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S., and the mother of the present 
Judge Robert Romney Kane. 

Patrick Joseph Blake, Q.C., County Court Judge for Fer 
managh had made his mark at the Bar, to which he was called 
in 1837. He died May 23rd, 1886. Blake s monument is in 
the O Connell Circle. 

The next funeral of any note was that of the Right Rev. 
Monsignor Farrell, in October, 1886. Genial, cultured, and 
hardworking few men, clerical or lay, passed away leaving 
behind them brighter or happier memories. He was a valued 
member of the Board of the Cemetery for twenty-one years. 

Professor Kavanagh, who made a considerable stir in his 
day, was buried at Glasnevin on October 2, 1886. A native 
of Kilkenny, he came early to Dublin, and entered the service 
of the National Board of Education, under which, while yet a 
young man, he became Head Inspector. This post he long 
held with distinction, and, at last, resigned it on a matter of 
principle. He then became Professor of Mathematics at the 

* This great hierarch had often visited the Cemetery, and mused among its 
monuments. Addressing a Member of the Board, in 1878, he wrote : " The 
generation that has grown up amidst the political triumphs which this century 
has witnessed, can scarcely realise their full bearing. History alone, by con 
trasting the Ireland of O Connell s early years and the Ireland of to-day, will 
be able to give a picture of the triumph of his policy ; triumphs achieved 
without a drop of blood without a crime for the grand maxim he incul 
cated was that the man who committed a crime was his country s worst enemy. 
Truly, there are sermons in stones when we turn to the walls of the Catholic 
Cemeteries. Many were beginning to forget how intimately our great Ceme 
tery was bound up with the stirring events of Irish history ; its records revive 
the memories of men and times on which Catholic Ireland should love to 
dwell." 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



179 







HISTORY OF THE 



Catholic University, of which Cardinal Newman was Rector. 
Kavanagh was specially identified with Catholic Primary Edu 
cation, and his " Catholic Case Stated " forcibly appealing for 
religious educational equality rivetted attention to the ques 
tion. He was a journalist, too, as well as a contributor to the 
Catholic Review and the Catholic American, owned by his son-in- 
law, Commendatore Hickey. He was a frequent speaker at 
the Statistical and other learned Societies. The death of his 
son by a gun accident, and of his daughter, a nun, hastened 
his own end. 

Three brothers named Lentaigne were, at the period of the 
French Revolution, firm adherents of the ill-fated King Louis 
XVI. Joseph and Jean died under the guillotine. Benjamin, 
the youngest, escaped to England, afterwards settled as a 
physician in Dublin, and became father of the late Right Hon. 
Sir John Lentaigne, whose career in Ireland was marked by 
philanthropy and success. Born in 1803, during the throes 
of Emmet s Rebellion, he was one of the first pupils received 
at Clongowes College. His father had something to do with 
prisons, and attended Wolfe Tone when dying in his dungeon 
from a self-inflicted wound. John in due time became member of 
the Prisons Board, and in this capacity took Dr. Madden to see 
the cell in which Lord Edward Eitzgerald heaved his last 
sigh. Lentaigne evinced a practical interest in the Industrial 
Exhibitions of 1853, l86 5> and 1871, not less than in Irish 
archaeology; was President of the Statistical and Zoological 
Societies ; and a Commissioner of National Education ; but 
it was as Inspector-General of Prisons and Reformatory and 
Industrial Schools in Ireland that Sir John Lentaigne will be best 
remembered. In 1852 Lentaigne contested the representation 
of the County Dublin with two Tories of the old school, Taylor 
and Hamilton, who regarded it as an impregnable citadel. The 
attempt proved a forlorn hope, but was marked by gallantry 
and courage.* He served as High Sheriff of Monaghan, 
possessed great influence with successive Viceroys, and finally 
he was created a Privy Councillor. He wore its gorgeous 
dress but once ; it soon gave place to the shroud, and on i5th 
November, 1886, Sir John Lentaigne was buried at Glasnevin. 

James Burke, A.B., barrister, had the start of Lord John 
Russell as biographer of Moore. He had previously prepared 
for publication the "Life of Peter Burrowes." Burke s best book 

* Lentaigne polled 1370 votes ; Col. Taylor, 1939. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES l8l 

is a continuation of " Lingard s History of England." He also 
edited the "Speeches of Edmund Burke." He died December 
ist, 1886, aged 67. 

The career of Martin Haverty was not uninteresting. Born 
in 1809, and aspiring to enter the priesthood, he received his 
education in the Irish College, Paris. But theology was soon 
relinquished, and thenceforth he applied himself to literary pur 
suits. In 1836 he joined the staff of the Freeman s Journal. He 
is next found on the Mominy Chronicle, an influential London 
journal, founded by John Black. An extended tour through 
Spain, Italy, and Algiers was made the subject by Haverty of 
graphic newspaper correspondence, in which he gave interest 
ing accounts of his travels and experiences. But Ireland was 
always before his thoughts ; his day-dream was to write its 
history, and, with this object, constantly sought to collect new 
material in his wanderings. The researches of O Donovan 
and O Curry had shed a flood of light upon the subject; but 
the knowledge thus developed was still unavailable for general 
readers until Haverty, in 1860, brought out his History. 
Shortly before his death, on i8th January, 1887, a second 
edition was issued under his supervision. He was elected by 
the Benchers to the post of Assistant-Librarian of the King s 
Inns, Dublin, where by his urbanity and readiness to afford 
information he earned the respect of the Bar and law students 
generally. He was the brother of Joseph Haverty, the well- 
known artist,* whose full-length portrait of O Connell hangs in 
the Reform Club. This picture, with one representing a monster 
Repeal meeting, has been published as an engraving, as well as 
several studies of peasant life, including the "Limerick Piper." 

A handsome monument, in the Garden Section, to John 
Nolan, who died at New York in 1887, records that he was an 
able colleague with Isaac Butt in founding the Home Rule 
Association. We also learn that the column was erected as 
an "Humble tribute of gratitude by one whom he helped to 
release from England s prisons, and who honours the memory 
of a true soldier of Irish Liberty." The name of the generous 
donor is Michael Davitt. 

On October 6th, in the same year, was buried Professor 
Robert Campbell, formerly Anglican Canon of St. Ninian s, 
Perth. His handsome monument, it is stated, was erected by 
his grateful pupils. 



* Buried at Glasncvin July 3Oth, 1864. 



l82 HISTORY OF THE 

The death of William Bannon, on April nth, 1887, is re 
corded on a prominent stone in the Dublin Section. The 
monument, we are told, "Is raised by the managers of the 
principal Dublin Hospitals in grateful remembrance of the 
munificent bequests of which they were the recipients." 

The post of Inspector of Anatomy, which had been created 
in 1834, to check improper traffic in the dead, was filled for 
many years by Daniel F. Brady, F.R.C.S.I. He was besides 
an active magistrate and politician. He died on January i6th, 
1888. 

Lady Mary Murray, who was buried at Glasnevin Cemetery 
on March 5th, 1888, represented a not unimportant stock. 
"You ask me about my mother s people," writes Mrs. Fox, of 
Kilcoursey ; " Her maiden name was Allen, but her parents 
died when she was very young. Her mother s brother was the 
late Charles McGarel, of Belgrave Square, London, and 
Magheramourne, Co. Antrim, from which place Sir James 
McGarel Hogg (Mr. McGarel s wife s brother, to whom he left 
the place and an enormous fortune*), took the title of Lord 
Magheramourne. My mother (his sister s child) and I were 
his only blood relations at the time of his death ; but in this 
case blood was not thicker than water." 

In the Garden Section rests the Rev. Patrick Yorke, 
M.R.I. A., who will be remembered for his untiring labours for 
the preservation of the Irish language, and some lectures and 
papers which aimed to throw a new light on certain curious 
points of Irish history. He died on March 29th, 1888, in the 
twenty-third year of his ministry. 

Few men were better known and liked than Leonard 
Morrogh, Master of the Ward Hounds, who died, i3th Janu 
ary, 1889, from an accident in the hunting field, near Sleedagh, 
Co. Wexford. Mr. Leonard Morrogh was laid to rest not far 
from the tomb of Charles Brindley, who, as the inscription 
states, ^ Was for many years the huntsman of the Ward 
hounds," and died at Ashbourne in January, 1879. 



* ;75>9 00 a J ear - The burial service of the Protestant Church was, of 
course, recited at her grave. Lady Mary, though Mrs. McGarel s nearest 
relation, was not remembered in her will. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



1 83 




THE BOLAND MEMORIAL CHAPEL, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



HISTORY OF THE 



CHAPTER XVII. 



ON 3 ist March, 1888, the remains of Edmund Dwyer Gray- 
one of the Members of Parliament for Dublin were consigned 
to Glasnevin Cemetery. Clever as was his father, Sir John 
Gray, the son is said by men who well knew both, to have 
surpassed him in tact and acumen. Mr. MacWeeney, the 
doyen of the Freeman s Journal staff, describes him as the 
Napoleon of Irish Journalism." As a financier, an orator, 
and a patriot, he held high rank. In accordance with his last 
wish, the funeral was private, and the arrangements of the 
simplest character. A fine bust of Dwyer Gray has been 
executed for his widow by Sir Thomas Farrell, President of 
the Royal Hibernian Academy. 

Within a few weeks another journalist was borne to Glas 
nevin, William R. Dunbar, M.A., T.C.D., editor of the Irish 
Sportsman. " Nimrod," as his friends called him, was very 
popular, and a public monument has been raised to his memory. 
This enthusiastic sportsman expired on May 25th, 1888. 

Three years later his son, who succeeded him in the editorial 
chair, was buried. From a handsome monument we learn that it 
was " Erected by the Cyclists and Athletes of Ireland in memory 
of a sterling sportsman, athlete, and gentleman, John Leopold 
Dunbar, Official Handicapper, Irish Cyclists Association, and 
Editor of the Irish Sportsman, died ist April, 1891, at. 34." 

" Hennessy is our best Irish scholar," wrote Dr. Stokes, 
President of the Royal Irish Academy, addressing Mr. W. J. 
Fitzpatrick, and expressing the hope that Hennessy might be 
voted on the Council. He was, besides, an eminent archaeologist 
and archivist, and was promoted by Mr. Disraeli s Government 
to a responsible position in the Irish Record office. Several 
important papers from his pen are found in the " The Proceed 
ings of the Royal Irish Academy." He edited, amongst other 
works, "TheChroniconScotorum," and "The Annals of Loch- 
Key," published in the "Rolls Series of National Chronicles." 
He also made time to write a good deal for the Academy, a 
leading organ of art and letters. His writings in the Revue 
Critique, Kuhn s Zeit Schrift, and in the Beitriige Zur Vergl, 
Sprachforschung fostered a reputation which finally became 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 185 

European. Among his correspondents was Count Nigra, the 
great Italian diplomatist, and author of several books on the 
dialects and poetry of Italy. William Maunsell Hennessy was 
buried in Glasnevin, on January I5th, 1889. 

On October i6th, 1889, Lord FitzGerald, a legal light in 
the gilded Chamber, died of fever, and was consigned to a 
vault at Glasnevin. This eminent Judge had discharged the 
duties of Attorney-General at two distinct periods, and it is a 
remarkable fact, as recorded by Dr. Madden, that his father, 
David FitzGerald, had been associated with Emmet in his ill- 
fated enterprise of 1803. 

Sir John Bradstreet, the fourth Baronet, became as strong 
a champion for Catholic interests as his grandfather had been 
on behalf of the opposing creed. For nearly thirty years he 
gave his toil and time to the management of Glasnevin 
Cemetery, and was an active member as well as being Pre 
sident of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul. He died 
November 21 st, 1889. His funeral, followed by the orphans 
he had sheltered, and the poor whom he had long visited and 
relieved, was a touching spectacle.* 

The Very Rev. Daniel Fogarty, Superior of the Carmelites, 
was a man of rare simplicity of character. He died November 
3oth, 1889 ; his grave is found near the mortuary chapel. 

Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S., President of the Royal Irish 
Academy, is a name of mark in the burial record of February, 
1890. Dr. Graves, who wished his own epitaph to be, " He 
Fed Fevers," gave Kane the prize which in 1830 he offered for 
the best essay on typhus fever. He discharged an important 
role at so early an age that men called him the "Boy-Pro 
fessor." Young Kane, full of characteristic energy, founded 
the Dublin Journal of Medical Science, which still maintains a 
healthy vitality. For his chemical researches the Royal 
Society presented him with its gold medal, and welcomed him 
to its ranks. His suggestion that a Museum of Irish Industry 
should be established, was duly adopted by the Government, 
who appointed him Director, and created him a Knight. Kane 
acted as Irish Relief Commissioner during the famine, and 
afterwards became President of the Queen s College, Cork. 
His most important works are "The Industrial Resources of 
Ireland," and "Chemistry, Practical and Theoretical," 

* Samuel Bradstreet, an ancestor of Sir John, was a member of the Irish 
Parliament, and finally a Justice of the King s Bench. 



i86 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 187 

On June i2th, 1890, a respected Police Magistrate, and 
accomplished scholar, William Woodlock, died. His tomb 
appropriately records : " He walked in the way of justice in 
the midst of the paths of judgment." Pwv. viii. 20. 

The Hon. Judge O Hagan, M.A., Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Judicature, a man of rare genius and sterling worth, 
was laid to rest on November i5th, 1890. Born in 1822, he 
joined the Bar in 1845; he had previously attached himself to 
the party of Young Ireland, and had written for the Nation 
several stirring pieces signed "Sliabh Cuilinn," so called from 
the high mountain which towers above his native Newry. He 
was just the being that would have charmed Scott, who asked : 

" Breathes there a man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said 

This is my own my native land ? " 

The inscription on O Hagan s tomb accurately describes 
him " Faithful till Death to God and Ireland." The tone his 
muse took is traceable in "Dear Land," and the "Song of 
Roland." 

" When comes the day all hearts to weigh, 

If staunch they be, or vile, 
Shall we forget the sacred debt 

We owe our mother isle ? 
My native heath is brown beneath, 

My native waters blue ; 
But crimson red o er both shall spread, 
Ere I am false to you, 

Dear land ! 
Ere I am false to you. 

When I behold your mountains bold 

Your noble lakes and streams 
A mingled tide of grief and pride 

Within my bosom teems. 
I think of all your long, dark thrall 

Your martyrs brave and true ; 
And dash apart the tears that start 

We must not weep for you, 

Dear land ! 

We must not weep for you. " 

O Hagan ended his days as Judge of the Land Court, where 
it became his duty to reduce the excessive rents which too 



i88 



HISTORY OF THE 




HON. MR. JUSTICE o HAGAN*S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 189 

long oppressed the people, apropos to which he was playfully 
reminded by D. F. MacCarthy of his early aspiration "Dear 
Land." He married the Hon. Frances O Hagan, daughter of 
Thomas, Lord O Hagan. 

On Sunday, November i6th, 1890, a great shock was 
caused in Dublin by Mr. Thomas Ryan, a man of wealth and 
personal popularity, falling dead in Nassau Street. On open 
ing his will it was found to contain a number of generous 
benefactions to charities and friends, with not a few strange 
covenants, requiring that his name should be adopted in the 
event of certain bequests being accepted. 

Stephen Myles MacSwiney, M.D., Fellow of the College of 
Physicians, was buried on August 2nd, 1890. Contempor 
aneously with another medical student, Richard Dalton 
Williams, he wrote, under the nom de plume of "Lancet," some 
songs of "Young Ireland." He preserved among his papers 
the original agreement, to which lie was a party, in founding 
the Tribune newspaper. His first professional appointment 
was Resident Medical Officer at St. Vincent s Hospital, 
Dublin ; he was afterwards physician to Jervis Street Hos 
pital. He filled with marked ability a chair of Medical 
Jurisprudence, and contributed papers to the Dublin Journal 
of Medical Science, the Irish Hospital Gazette, and the Medical 
Press. 

Father Meehan was an octogenarian when he died in 
1890. The books associated with his name are the "Fate 
and Fortunes of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell," " The 
Confederation of Kilkenny" (both abounding in episodes highly 
dramatic); "History of the O Tooles of Wicklow," "The Rise 
and Ruin of the Geraldines, Earls of Desmond," "Life of 
Francis Kirwan, Bishop of Killala," "The Cottage Library," 
" Father Charles s Flowers from Foreign Fields," " Lives of the 
Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects of the Order of 
St. Dominick, from the Italian," "The Rise and Fall of the 
Irish Franciscan Monasteries," and " Memoirs of the Irish 
Hierarchy in the Seventeenth Century." Father Meehan made 
his studies in Rome. He was buried at Glasnevin i6th March, 
1890. 

The Very Rev. Thomas Canon Pope a man of great 
holiness and culture passed away on Sunday, 1 2th October, 
1890, aged 81. He claimed descent from a collateral branch 
of the family of Alexander Pope, the illustrious author of the 
" Essay on Man." Among his literary works may be mentioned 



19 HISTORY OF THE 

"St. Peter s Day in the Vatican," which appeared in 1868, and 
was followed by other books remarkable in the publishing 
annals of Dublin. In 1874 he brought out "The Council of the 
Vatican, and the Events of the Time," and later on his equally 
interesting "Holy Week at St. Peter s in Rome," and an 
"Illustrated Litany of Loreto." After a lengthened illness he 
put himself under the care of the Sisters of Mercy in the Mater 
Misericordiae Hospital, where the good priest closed his eyes in 
the last sleep, and was laid to rest in Glasnevin i5th October, 
1890. 

Sir William Carroll, M.D., an old and esteemed member 
of the Cemeteries Committee, died in November, 1890, aged 
71. He twice served the office of Lord Mayor, and had the 
honour of receiving knighthood at the hands of the Queen at 
Windsor. 

About the same time another prominent public man passed 
away in the person of Alderman Cornelius Dennehy. J.P. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

"THE banshee must have wailed last night in historic Clare; 
a chieftain of the high Milesian race has fallen," wrote a 
journalist in announcing the death of The O Gorman Mahon. 
On June i6th, 1891, the last link was snapped which bound 
the present political generation with the earliest struggles of 
this century for national freedom. There died with him, too, 
a type which had already become obsolete the type of 
chivalrous and dashing Irish gentleman of the Celtic stock, in 
whom the old traditions of chieftainhood were still livin- forces, 
who felt impelled by the name he bore to be the pink of 
gallantry and a leader among men in every political struggle. 
He introduced O Connell to active politics in Clare the turning 
point of the Catholic question ; and forty-four years after the 
Tribune s death, O Gorman Mahon, in green old age, died a 
Member of the British Senate. Europe was too narrow and 
commonplace to hold him. He found more congenial fields 
and pastures in South American Republics. One heard of him 
now commanding an army in Bolivia ; now manoeuvring a 
fleet off Peru, In the interval of these strange episodes he 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES IQI 

used to shine in society in half the capitals of Europe. His 
handsome face, his tall, cavalier-like figure, his winning man 
ners, a natural dignity, tempered by genuine Irish frankness 
and bonhomie, made him a prime favourite everywhere. He died 
at the age of go, and was buried at Glasnevin. 

John Casey, F.R.S., LL.D., Vice-President R.I.A., Professor 
of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, F. R.U.I., had 
been National School Teacher at Cappoquin, but though thor 
oughly suited for that post, he was, as regards the lore which won 
him fame, self-taught. His leisure hours were given to solving 
mathematical problems. Some of these diversions chanced to 
fall under the notice of two distinguished experts in that line 
Doctors Jellett and Townshend both Fellows of Trinity 
College, Dublin, with the result that they were much im 
pressed. A new light had arisen, and the time had more than 
come when Elrington s Euclid, long a class-book in the Uni 
versity, might be relegated to the lumber-room. He won a 
Sizarshipin Trinity College in Higher Mathematics, and books 
to the number of six, dealing with Trigonometry and Geometry, 
came from his pen. He died, aged 70, on January 3rd, 1891. 

Within a few weeks another Fellow of the Royal Univer 
sity fell from the ranks of its Senate. Professor Stewart, an 
M.A. of Cambridge, and an Anglican clergyman, became a 
Catholic, and closed in Ireland, a career of much usefulness. 
Nearly all his children had preceded him to the tomb, in which, 
on February 2oth, 1891, his own remains were laid. 

Poor Barry Sullivan, who so often exclaimed in " Hamlet," 

" This fell Sergeant Death, 
Is strict in his arrest." (Act v., Sc. ii.) 

found these words verified at last. On the 3rd of May, 1891, 
after a prolonged illness, he died at Brighton, and, by his own 
desire, his remains were borne to Ireland. He is described 
in the Register of the Cemetery as "Thomas Barry Sullivan, 
Dramatic Artist." The more legitimate drama was the goal 
of his ambition. He attained so high a reputation in Edinburgh, 
that Benjamin Webster gave him an engagement at the Hay- 
market Theatre, where he frequently performed before the 
Queen and Prince Consort. Engagements followed at the St. 
James s, Drury Lane, and Sadleir s Wells. In Canada, the 
United States, and Australia, he met with an enthusiastic 
reception ; at Melbourne he played one thousand nights to 
overflowing houses. Returning to England, he appeared at 



HISTORY OF THE 




BARRY SULLIVAN S MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES IQ3 

Drury Lane as " Richard III.," "Hamlet," "Macbeth," and 
"Richelieu." He is also well remembered as "Mortimer" in 
the " Iron Chest." It was at this period that the Times described 
him as "The leading legitimate actor of the British stage." 
He became lessee of the Holborn Theatre ; but he soon pre 
ferred a roving life to enforced detention in a crowded city. 
Successful tours of the United Kingdom were resumed ; in 
Dublin he was a special favourite. A fine statue in marble 
by Sir Thomas Farrell, President of the Royal Hibernian 
Academy, was unveiled in the Cemetery with imposing cere 
monial, on June 28th, 1894. Sullivan is represented as 
" Hamlet," in the graveyard scene ; and the pose and features 
of the actor are exquisitely represented. His hand holds a 
skull; the soliloquy "Alas! Poor Yorick," is supposed to find 
expression from his lips. Sullivan s epitaph has not yet been 
determined. Perhaps the simple word "Exit" would prove 
not inapt. The following memorial verses were recited with 
powerful elocutionary effect by an old friend, J. F. Warden. 
They are written by Mr. Samuel Cowan, M.A. : 

" Here sleeps a king. Unveil his throne. Allow 
No gloom of earth to shroud his glorious brow ! 
Unveil his throne, and let the eternal sky 
Crown him with light whose fame can never die ! 

Behold him now the Monarch of the Stage 

Our loyal love his royal heritage ; 

The matchless master, who, to smiles and tears, 

Held our souls captive, through historic years ; 

The Genius-Spirit, who, with magic art, 

Raised from the dead the loves of Shakespeare s heart ; 

And robing them in nature s richest guise, 

Quickened his dreams to soul-realities ! 

And shall he die, who had the power to give 
Voice to the dumb, and bid the dead to live ? 
Not so : for him by conquering death unknown 
Life is a sceptre, and the grave a throne ! 

Here let him rest his laurels nobly won ; 
Here let him rest each act of duty done ; 
Until the last dead Trump s tremendous blast 
Shall tell his little rounded sleep is past, 
And he shall rise triumphant from the sod, 
To play his soul s grand masterpiece to God." 



194 HISTORY OF THE 

Mr. Warden, as he spoke these lines, stood on a dais over 
looking the vast crowd which had assembled ; and it is stated 
by the reporter of the Freeman s Journal that many were moved 
to tears. 

On November i2th, 1891, a public funeral followed to 
Glasnevin the coffin of P. W. Nally, of Claremorris, a political 
prisoner, who died aged 34, in his cell at Mountjoy, a few days 
previous to the time appointed for his release. 

The Right Hon. Stephen Woulfe Flanagan, nephew of Chief 
Baron Woulfe, and himself a highly distinguished Judge, died 
6th December, 1891. He was a member of the Privy Council 
of England, as well as of that at home; he married the daughter 
of J. R. Corballis, Q.C., LL.D., and his family vault, crowned 
by a white marble monument, is found in the O Connell 
Circle. 

A group of veterans, some of whom bore scars, attended, in 
February, 1892, the burial of James Devlin, late of the 
Adjutant-General s office, one of the survivors of the "Six 
Hundred" in the cavalry charge of Balaclava. That he should 
have escaped what Tennyson calls "The mouth of hell," and 
nearly forty years after found a grave in the peaceful seclusion of 
Glasnevin Cemetery, was a blessing which his family gratefully 
recognised. 

An old English family migrated from Congleton, Cheshire, 
to Ireland, and, like the Geraldines, became more Irish than 
the Irish themselves. Parnell, the poet, who undertook the 
cure of souls near Glasnevin, was one of them. Sir John 
Parnell became Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer, and resigned 
rather than vote for the Union. His son, Sir Henry, after- 
vvards Lord Congleton, will be remembered as the constant 
correspondent of Bishop Doyle on questions intimately con 
nected with the welfare of Ireland. Charles Stewart Parnell s 
mother was daughter of Commodore Stewart a highly dis 
tinguished officer of the American Navy. Parnell graduated in 
Cambridge. He entered Parliament ; greatly distinguished him 
self in debate ; and in 1 878 was elected, in succession to Isaac Butt, 
President of the Home Rule Confederation. He soon started 
a new organization, having for its object, as he states : "The 
reduction of rackrents, and to facilitate the obtaining the 
ownership of the soil by the occupiers. He visited America : 
lectured in many cities, before several State Legislatures, and 
finally, the House of Representatives at Washington an honour 
previously enjoyed by Lafayette and Kossuth. In 1885 he 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




ig6 HISTORY OF THE 

nominated every Nationalist candidate, and came back to 
Westminster at the head of eighty-five supporters. To meet 
this new situation, Mr. Gladstone proposed Home Rule for 
Ireland. The Parnell Commission instituted to inquire into 
certain allegations emanating from the Times office, charging 
Parnell with a treasonable conspiracy to effect the separation 
of Ireland from England decided after 128 days in Parnell s 
favour, and proved that the letters given in facsimile, and 
purporting to have been written by him, were the forgeries of 
Richard Pigott. This was followed by Parnell s action against 
theTimes for libel, which resulted in its having to pay him 5,000 
damages. The Freedom of Edinburgh was soon after pre 
sented to him with other honours. 

But at last reverses came too recent and notorious to 
need record here and Parnell, while yet in his prime, died 
at Brighton, on October 6th, 1891, leaving behind him the 
splendid record of his fifteen long years of brilliant and successful 
service to his country. His remains were escorted to Dublin 
by devoted friends and colleagues; they lay in state at the City 
Hall, where upwards of 30,000 of his countrymen came to look 
upon him for the last time. The first portion of the funeral 
service took place in the old historic church of St. Michan 
where the patriot Brothers Sheares are laid to rest, as well as 
Charles Lucas, founder of the Freeman s Journal, Oliver Bond, 
and other noble Irishmen. From the City Hall the procession 
moved towards Glasnevin, and in the presence of a mighty 
multitude the mortal remains of Mr. Parnell were interred. 
They lie about fifty yards west of the new chapel, in a plot 
granted free by the Cemeteries Committee. The Freeman s 
Journal^ in its notice of the obsequies, observed that " No greater 
upheaval of popular emotion has ever been witnessed in Ireland, 
and it was the most imposing public cortege that has passed 
through the Metropolis for half a century. The demeanour of 
the countless thousands of the people throughout the trying 
day, was magnificent for its solemnity, dignity, good order, 
and sobriety." 

Alderman John Campbell, who had twice discharged with 
marked efficiency the duties of Lord Mayor, and had been for 
many years a member of the Cemeteries Board, died, aged 83, on 
May 2nd, 1892. H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, when leaving 
Dublin, in 1865, offered to him the honour of knighthood ; but 
Campbell, while gratefully acknowledging the compliment, 
respectfully declined it. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 197 

Dr. Peter Shannon, who soon followed him, was one year 
his junior. Few medical men were better known in Dublin. 
For a lengthened period he sat on the Council of the College 
of Surgeons. He died on August 26th, 1892, aged 82. 

The day dream of John George MacCarthy was to see a 
peasant proprietary ; and Lord Salisbury felt that in appointing 
him a Commissioner in the new Land Court, he would fit the 
place. On another favourite subject MacCarthy had been active 
in Parliament the reclamation of slob-lands. He proved a 
laborious, conscientious judge: his decisions were well thought 
out, and will, no doubt, be often quoted. Of acknowledged 
culture, no literary reunion seemed complete without him ; 
learned societies looked still more learned when MacCarthy 
tall as Thackeray, grave as Thurlow, straight as Pompey s 
pillar entered and took up his position. When returning from 
Homburg, he died at the Euston Hotel, London. His writings 
included "Grattan and the Irish Parliament," "A Plea 
for Home Government," " The Land Question Stated and 
Answered," and " Letters on Land Tenures of Europe." He 
was buried at Glasnevin Cemetery on September loth, 1892. 

"The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong," 
saith Ecclcsiastes ix. 2. Of this, however, it would not have been 
easy to convince Robert Jefferson Hunter, owner of the Racing 
Calendar, keeper of "The Match Book,"* and judge of the Cur- 
ragh, Punchestown, and other races, who, at the age of 87, 
closed his career on September 8th, 1892. Hunter was a 
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin : and few faces were more 
familiar than that of the genial judge. A capital portrait of 
Hunter, in oils, by the late Sir Thomas Jones, P.R.H.A., 
remains to recall him. Among his last acts was the gift of a 
valuable chalice to the convent in which his daughters were 
inmates, and a generous donation to "The Sustentation Fund 
of the Church of Ireland." Amongst his apophthegms was a 
saying of Lord George Bentinck : "All men are equal on the 
turf as well as under it." In the same grave in Glasnevin his 
two sons also rest, Robert Hunter, B.A., and Laurence Hunter, 
the well-known V.S. 

The dream of the Rev. Brinsley Sheridan, O.C.C., was to 
walk in the footsteps of our Lord in the Holy Land. A 
book devoted to the record of his travels was much praised by 

*A11 entries made in "The Match Book" required large fees, which 
annually amounted to a considerable sum." 



198 HISTORY OF THE 

reviewers. He died, aged 56, on November i6th, 1892. He 
had specially distinguished himself in conducting local missions, 
and in bringing sinners to repentance. 

The next man to go was a zealous member of the govern 
ing body of Glasnevin Cemetery, Sir James Mackey, D.L. 
Twice Lord Mayor, he received the honour of knighthood in 
recognition of his public services. He married the daughter of 
Sylvanus Jones, R.M., County Galway, whose family vault is 
to be observed in the South Section. 

She who won the cordial praise of Mr. Lecky in his 
"History of England" never publicly disclosed her name; but 
in Dublin there was no secret about it, and when, in July, 
1893, Sarah Atkinson died, a wail was raised by those who 
knew her best. No doubt the most touching tribute is that 
from Rosa Mulholland (Lady Gilbert) : 

" Back to thy earth, O God of our birth, with tears 

and in loving trust, 
Into the dark furrow, seed for to-morrow, we give 

Thee this consecrate dust. 
Thou who for sleep didst make her, and will yet 

awake her, take her, 

With the blossoms of the flowers laid low, 
With the glory of sheaves, and of the fallen leaves 

wind-swept into winter s snow. 

Again Thou lt build her up fair, and with the air 

of her olden beauty and grace, 
In form Thou wilt lend her the stately splendour of 

trees, and the flowers in her face. 
Body and soul, the great sweet whole, 

as we knew her, ere death slew her, 
Will she live in Thy smile, O God, 
As her spirit liveth even now, while low her clay 

lieth under the sod." 

Mrs. Atkinson was a frequent contributor to serial literature, 
and many biographic tributes to leading men who fell in the 
battle of life, were woven by that graceful, reverent hand. Her 
" Life of Mary Aikenhead, Foundress of the Irish Sisters of 
Charity," is a monument of her genius and industry. Her 
"Life of St. Brigid "published in London tells, from legend 
and record, the story of her who lighted the holy fire among the 
oak woods of Kildare. Mrs. Atkinson s memoirs of John Hogan, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




ALDERMAN JOHN D ARCY s MONUMENT AND VAULT, 
GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



2OO THE HISTORY OF 

Foley, and Eugene O Curry, besides being valuable as authentic 
records, glow with true touches of nature, flashes of wit, and 
passages of real eloquence. All are fine specimens of critical 
biography, and reveal the true artistic instincts and knowledge 
of the writer. Her "Old Dublin Houses Re-Storied" shine 
out, once more, from their grime and decay, radiant with the 
grandeur of the past. But she could be an active philan 
thropist as well as a sedentary student. Long years ago, in 
concert with Ellen Woodlock, the gifted sister of "Father 
Prout," she effected an opening into the South Dublin Union 
Workhouse such houses having been then rigidly closed 
against all visitois and, straining every nerve, these ladies 
rescued and trained into useful members of society, a number 
of young women who had grown up from infancy, idle and 
unruly behind the walls of that most hopeless of all dwellings 
the Irish poorhouse. Some account of this noble effort of 
Mrs. Atkinson to struggle with a deadly evil, is given by the 
Baroness Burdett Coutts in "Woman s Mission." In 1861 
Mrs. Atkinson contributed to the readings before the Social 
Science Congress, a paper on the subject ot workhouse evils and 
the need for industrial training. If her life was fully revealed 
one might name her with Mrs. Fry and Florence Nightingale. 
When she fell ill the hospitals, refuges, and prisons of Dublin 
lost a comforter and helper. She was assiduous in her 
charities, and, knowing their extent, one marvelled how she 
found time for other things. In many a quarter of the world, 
souls rescued, sick comforted, the hungry fed, prisoners visited, 
must bless her name. 

Her husband, Dr. George Atkinson, w T ho, for fifty-one years, 
worked on the Board of the Catholic Cemetery, and showed a 
vitality and vigour that seemed destined to extend into the next 
century, sank from the hour that his wife died; and he soon 
followed her whose soul was blended with his own. She died in 
July, 1893 5 ne passed away in December of the same year. In 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated as a Master of Arts, 
and Bachelor of Medicine, he had formed an intimacy with two 
students afterwards destined to play important parts John 
Gray and Torrens MacCullagh, and in 1840 all three started 
The Citizen an attractive serial which ran to four volumes, 
and dealt with "politics, literature and art." In 1841 the same 
trio acquired the Freeman s Journal, which became under their 
management an influential organ, and a valuable property. Dr. 
and Mrs. Atkinson liked literary society, and especially loved 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 2OI 

to gather round their hospitable board visitors from other 
climes who, with an intellectual or generous object, 
approached our shores. But ordinarily a cloister-like peace 
pervaded her home, in which pictures, books, and freshly- 
gathered flowers gave zest to her literary work. "It was a 
sacred place" to quote the words of Ruskin "a vestal 
temple, a hearth watched over by Household Gods." Katherine 
Tynan says that Sarah Atkinson was such a woman as 
sweetens the world about her for the day in which she lives ; 
such a one as Catherine of Sienna, or Lady Rachel Russell, or 
Mrs. Godolphin, women whose after-memory is as sweet as a 
bunch of fresh, white lilies. A handsome Celtic cross, rich in 
sculptured fret-work, of which the cost was defrayed by the 
Board of Glasnevin Cemetery, rises over the remains of Sarah 
Atkinson and her husband ; but we have to thank Lady 
Gilbert for a more widely visible monument. She was the 
attached friend of Sarah Atkinson, and has recently rendered 
an important service to Irish letters, and to the fair fame of the 
dead, by rescuing from an ephemeral existence Mrs. Atkinson s 
striking contributions to periodic literature. 

The most interesting place at Glasnevin, outside the 
Cemetery, is Delville, where Swift and Stella loved to meet. 
Visitors were fortunate in finding in its later occupant, Lady 
Keenan, one who, with thorough heartiness, gave all facility to 
view the place. One night, just as Lady Keenan was retiring 
to rest, she approached the bedroom fire too closely ; her dress 
caught the flames, and after excruciating agony she died. Her 
tomb almost in view of Delville records that her death 
occurred i2th April, 1893. 

The Rev. Patrick Laurence O Toole, O.C.C., who produced 
a remarkable volume descriptive of the fortunes and vicissitudes 
of the Clan O Toole and other Leinster Septs, was buried at 
Glasnevin on the yth of May, 1894. In compiling his bulky 
book he carefully consulted "The Annals of Ulster," "The 
Books of Leinster, Ballymote, and Lecan," "The Four 
Masters," and the State Papers. 

Death dealt its strokes fast and heavily on the Royal 
Hibernian Academy of Arts about this time. Burke, Gray, 
Colles, Watkins, Farrell, Doyle, Jones, Kirk, died. On October 
i4th, 1893, Arthur J. Mayne, R.H.A., aged 56, was buried at 
Glasnevin. On the i5th October, 1894, Henry Loftus Robinson, 
R.H.A., F.R.I. A. I., a highly distinguished young architect, 
followed. 



202 HISTORY OF THE 

Father James Healy s vitality and vivacity seemed so 
unquenchable that his death, in the autumn of 1894, came as a 
stunning blow, and is much too recent to allow any adequate 
notice here. Beloved by the poor for whom he had ever a 
cheerful word and a ready heip, of him it might be also said 
that he was "a lord among wits, and a wit among lords." No 
funeral had ever brought together so representative a gathering. 
" The obsequies, " records the Irish Times, " were without doubt, 
the most remarkable ever held in the diocese of Dublin." The 
list of names dazzled by their brilliancy and variety. " Utterly 
devoid of bigotry, and a persona grata in the best houses of 
England and this country, he was," writes James Anderson 
Scott, " consequently the means of doing an immeasurable 
good to his Church, of which he was a distinguished ornament." 
His recovery was prayed for in several Protestant churches. 
Lord Plunket, Protestant Archbishop of Dublin, laid a wreath 
on his coffin. Dirges and monodies from unlooked-for sources 
touched the hearts of all. Father Healy was buried on 
Tuesday, 3oth October, 1894. 

The name of Sir Patrick Keenan, C.B., is in the list of 
those who attended Father Healy s funeral. Within the 
next few days his own death was announced. By this sad 
incident the Board of National Education lost an able member, 
to whom up to the last hour of his useful life, the system and 
its administration owed a deep debt. Sir Patrick had spent 
his whole working life in the honourable service of Irish 
education, and he was known to state that, for thirty years, he 
had never taken a holiday. No doubt he was sent by the 
Crown in 1869 to inquire into the state of Education at Trini 
dad ; and, nine years later, to Malta with the same object, but 
every hour of his absence was packed with hard work. In 
1881 he received the distinction of a K.C.M.G., and in 1886 
became a Privy Councillor. In the former year, the Social 
Science Congress met in Dublin, and it will be remembered 
with what dignity and power he filled the post of President of its 
Education Committee. A few days before his death, the stately 
figure of Sir Patrick, robed as a Senator, was seen on Degree 
Day at the Royal University of Ireland. He died at Delville, 
Glasnevin, within a stone s throw of his own vault, on ist 
November, 1894. 

In arctic weather and amid drifts of snow, which recalled 
earlier days in the Crimea, Major T. L. Grace died on the i4th 
January, 1895. He had served in the 57th Regiment, better 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



203 




J)R. GEO. M. AFCORMICK S MONUMENT AND VAULT, O CONNELL CIRCLE 



204 HISTORY OF THE 

known, perhaps, as the old Die-hards and to quote from his 
record, " was present at the battles of Balaclava and Inker- 
man, storm and capture of the quarries, commanded a leading 
detachment at the storming of the Redan, present at the final 
assault of the forts and fall of Sebastopol, also at the bombard 
ment and capture of Kinburn, assisted on three occasions in 
repulsing night attacks on the advanced trenches, promoted 
ensign for service at the battle of Balaclava, and captain for 
services in the field (medal with three clasps, and Turkish 
medal)." In later years he was Secretary to the Corn Ex 
change. 

The accommodation afforded by the old offices of the 
Cemeteries having become insufficient, the Board, acquired in 
October, 1894, f r the sum of ^"2,200, the fine mansion, No. 4 
Rutland Square, formerly the residence of the Earls of 
Wicklow, more recently occupied by Cardinal MacCabe, and, 
for a time, by the present Archbishop of Dublin. On the ist 
f J m Y> J ^ ( J5 tne Committee opened their new offices. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SEVERAL members of the De Blaquiere family were buried at 
Glasnevin. They were amongst the nearest relatives of Lord 
de Blaquiere. As Sir John Blaquiere, he played an important 
part as Chief Secretary for Ireland, and Member of the Irish 
Parliament. He had been also active from 1768 as Secretary 
to the British Embassy in Paris, and a mass of papers dealing 
with the movements of the Pretender, Prince Charles Edward, 
were sold by Blaquiere s relatives to the Foreign Office in 1850. 
Of this fact the late John de Blaquiere informed Mr. W. J. Fitz- 
Patrick ; and added that he was obliged to sign a document 
pledging himself not to publish copies of any of the papers thus 
bought. Lord Cornwallis states that Sir John governed Ireland 
for years.* Sir Jonah Barrington, in his " Personal Sketches," 
thus describes him at the time of the Union: "Sir John 
Blaquiere was a little deaf of one ear, for which circumstance 

Cornwallis Correspondence ii., 456. 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 205 

he gave a very singular reason : his seat, when Secretary, was 
the outside one on the Treasury Bench, next to the gangway, 
and he said that so many members used to come perpetually to 
whisper to him, and the buzz of importunity was so heavy and 
continuous, that before one claimant s words had got out of his 
ear, the demand of another forced its way in, till the ear-drum 
being overcharged, suddenly burst; which, he said, turned out 
conveniently enough, as he was then obliged to stufFthe organ 
tight, and tell every gentleman that his physician had directed 
him not to use that ear at all, and the other as little as possible." 

The news of the somewhat sudden death of James Canon 
Daniel, P.P., St. Nicholas s, Francis Street, on yth April, 
1895, was received by his colleagues on the Catholic Ceme 
teries Board with feelings of profound sorrow. This zealous 
and philanthropic priest was a native of Dublin, and his 
many years in the sacred ministry were passed in that portion 
of the city embracing Meath Street and Francis Street the 
home of the industrious poor. To write a history of his 
labours in all useful and charitable movements, which had 
been started in Dublin for the past thirty years, would be to 
write a history of the metropolitan charities for three decades. 
It is sufficient to indicate the scope of his labours when we 
say that Canon Daniel, at the time of his lamented death, 
was an active member of the Catholic Cemeteries Board, of 
the Board of the Catholic Deaf and Dumb Institution, of 
the Coombe Hospital, of the Royal Hospital for Incurables, and 
of the Loan Fund Board. The mortal remains of this widely- 
beloved and patriotic priest were brought to his last resting 
place on loth April, 1895. His ability and services to religion 
were so remarkable that he was unanimously selected by the 
Hierarchy of Ireland as the Secretary to the Royal College 
of St. Patrick, Maynooth. He successfully proposed at the 
Royal Hospital for Incurables, of which he was a Governor, 
that a Protestant Clergyman, who had been a Hebrew prize 
man, in Trinity College, and was at the timeot Canon Daniel s 
motion an inmate of the Union Workhouse, should be admit 
ted to the Institution. This poor clergyman had received at the 
time of the Disestablishment a retiring composition of /~8oo, 
but men of literary attainments are not always good financiers, 
and the money soon melted away in his hands. 

The Right Rev. Monsignor Kennedy, P.P.,V.G., Dean of 
Dublin, and Parish Priest of St. James s, died in his eighty- 
fifth year, on iyth December, 1895. He na -d been a priest 



2O6 HISTORY OF THE 

for more than half a century, and died full of years and 
honours. Monsignor Kennedy was a pattern of all that a 
zealous and pious pastor, mindful of the needs of religion and 
the necessities of his flock, should be. Though so long in the 
sacred ministry, his duties as a priest were confined to but two 
parishes those of Clontarf and James s Street, acting as 
pastor in the latter parish for the exceptionally long period of 
39 years. He was an ardent worker in all fields affecting the 
spiritual and temporal welfare of his parishioners, especially by 
the promotion of temperance, and by increasing the means 
of education. The list of new churches and schools provided 
in his parish through his fatherly care and energy, bear ample 
testimony to the success of his efforts. These edifices include 
a very fine church at Dolphin s Barn, a Chapel of Ease at 
Golden Bridge, the Christian Brothers schools in James s 
Street, the Convent schools in Basin Lane, and the schools 
at Dolphin s Barn. This is a great record for a single 
parish and a single life. Monsignor Kennedy, though deeply 
occupied in the duties of his sacred calling, had throughout 
his long life been brought into contact with many leading men 
in Irish political movements. He had the acquaintance and 
esteem of O Connell, whom he visited in prison ; and in later 
years, as Chaplain to Kilmainham Jail, during the exciting 
times of the Land League agitation, he had spiritual charge 
of the large number of "suspects" who were imprisoned there 
under the provisions of the Coercion Act ; and in the same way 
it fell to his lot to prepare the Phoenix Park criminals for their 
awful doom. Monsignor Kennedy was singularly fitted for 
the task of winning the lapsed back to virtue, and no one who 
knew him could fail to be affected by the powerful influence of 
his piety and charity. He had been chaplain to Golden Bridge 
Cemetery for 30 years. His remains now rest in Glasnevin, 
where his grave will be found in St. Bridget s Section. The 
plot was granted free by the Cemeteries Committee. 

The Freeman s Journal of December 26th, 1895, m a l n g an d 
kindly notice, tells us that " On Christmas Eve Ireland lost a dis 
tinguished son, and the Republic of Letters an eminent citizen in 
the person of William J. FitzPatrick, who, on the morning of that 
day, died in his 66th year, at his residence in Eitzwilliam Square, 
Dublin. With due limitation, Mr. FitzPatrick must be recog 
nised as one who rendered valuable services to Irish National 
literature, and invaluable services to the Irish National cause. 
Born in August, 1830, his first book was, we believe, the Life 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



207 




208 HISTORY OF THE 

and Times of Lord Cloncurry. Forty years have passed since 
the Life of Lord Cloncurry appeared, and scarce one of the 
forty was unmarked by a new book from Mr. FitzPatrick s 
pen. He attained much repute by his careful and interesting 
Life of Dr. Doyle, ( J. K. L ), the brilliant and famous Bishop 
of Kildare and Leighlin ; also by his biographies of Lady 
Morgan, Archbishop Whately, Charles Lever, Dr. Lanigan, 
the great Dominican, Father Tom Burke, and other works. 
During his last illness, a brief memoir of the late Father James 
Healy appeared anonymously, but no one who read the open 
ing lines of this work could fail to see that it was from Mr. 
FitzPatrick s pen. The books in which Mr. FitzPatrick is 
seen at his best, and on which his fame will ultimately rest, 
are the Sham Squire, Ireland Before the Union, and 
Secret Service under Pitt. Mr. FitzPatrick had the keen 
scent of a literary detective great patience in following a clue, 
and unrivalled industry. The story of the Betrayal of Lord 
Edward FitzGerald had a great fascination for him, and we 
now know every detail of that dark record of treachery and 
horror. Mr. Gladstone paid a striking compliment to Mr. 
FitzPatrick in his lengthy review of the Memoirs and Cor 
respondence of O Connell, which appeared in the Nineteenth 
Century a few years since. In this review Mr. Gladstone said 
that Mr. FitzPatrick s book enables Englishmen to see 
O Connell as a great and good man. 

Mr. FitzPatrick was a member of the Board of the Catholic 
Cemeteries Committee ; Professor of History in the Royal 
Hibernian Academy ; a member of the Royal Jrish Academy ; 
a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, etc. Shortly before his 
death he received the Honorary Degree of LL.D. from the 
Royal University of Ireland. The honour which gave him 
most pleasure was that which he received at the hands of the 
Holy Father. Pope Leo XIII., when he was Nuncio at 
Brussels, had met the Liberator. The Pope read Mr. Fitz 
Patrick s " Memoir of O Connell," and sent the author the 
insignia of a Knight of St. Gregory. 

The Most Rev. Dr. Duggan, Bishop of Clonfert, died in 
Dublin on Saturday, the i5th August, 1896, and on the fol 
lowing Tuesday (i8th) all that was mortal of one of the most 
revered and beloved of Irish Bishops was laid to rest in 
Glasnevin. The Freeman s Journal, in a notice of the deceased 
prelate, says that the Feast of the Assumption was always tor 
him a day of special devotion. On the morning of that day, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 2OQ 

with his old and dear friend, the Most Rev. Dr. MacEvilly, 
Archbishop of Tuam, at his bedside, he was called to the 
reward of a life of most fervent piety, purest patriotism, and 
all-embracing benevolence. From first to last his life was given 
absolutely to his people. In the dread crisis of the famine, no 
man laboured harder than he, or more successfully, to mitigate 
the affliction of the people. During the agrarian agitation of 
a generation ago, and in the famous Galway election of 1873, 
the Bishop of Clonfert was eloquent and strenuous on the side 
of the people, and by his efforts largely contributed to the 
victory. For this he was denounced by Judge Keogh, who 
recommended his prosecution. The Bishop was splendidly 
defended by Isaac Butt, Q.C., who in effect set the prosecutors 
in the dock and arraigned them in a speech of incomparable 
eloquence. There was no tittle of reputable evidence against 
the patriotic prelate, who was triumphantly acquitted, after a 
trial lasting from i5th to igth February, 1874. To the end of 
his life Bishop Duggan maintained his character as the fear 
less friend and guardian of his people with the same unshrink 
ing devotion. His grave will be found adjacent to the tomb 
of his friend, Cardinal MacCabe, beside whom it was his ex 
pressed wish that his ashes should lie. 

William McLaughlin, Q.C., one of the oldest and most 
respected members of the Irish Bar, died at his house in 
Mountjoy Square, Dublin, on 28th May, 1896. Mr. McLaughlin 
was a Derry man, and early in life was employed on the staff 
of the Derry Journal. He subsequently became its editor, and 
contributed to its columns many admirable articles on interest 
ing questions of the time. By dint of steady industry and 
perseverance he advanced himself from small beginnings to a 
foremost position amongst the ablest advocates in the Law 
Courts of Ireland. He was called to the Bar in Hilary Term, 
1866, and it was not long until his abilities began to be widely 
recognised. He took silk in 1877, and was elected a Bencher 
of the King s Inns in 1886. Mr. McLaughlin had a genial 
presence, and his racy wit was always keen without being un 
kindly. He gained great repute as a Nisi Prius pleader, and 
as a cross-examiner he was looked upon as quite formidable. 
Mr. McLaughlin had reached his 66th year, and with his death 
a notable figure passed out of Irish life. He was buried at 
Glasnevin on 3oth May, 1896. 

Sir Patrick Maxwell, Knt., an eminent Dublin solicitor, 
died at his residence in North Great George s Street, on the 

P 



210 



HISTORY OF THE 




"X * - 

MOST REV. DR. DUGGAN s MONUMENT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 211 

1 5th January, 1897, aged 79 years. Sir Patrick Maxwell was 
head of the firm of Maxwell and Weldon, solicitors, and was 
one of the seniors of his profession, having been admitted to 
practice so far back as 1846. In 1887, the year of her Majesty s 
first Jubilee, he was President of the Incorporated Law Society, 
and received his knighthood in connection with the celebra 
tions of that year. Sir Patrick Maxwell was buried in Glas- 
nevin on the i8th January, 1897. 

On the 24th April, 1897, Mr. Thomas F. O Connell, a 
well-known and most respected solicitor, passed out of life. 
The late Mr. O Connell was admitted to practice in 1851, 
and soon acquired an extensive and varied business, not only 
in the city of Dublin, but also in his native County of Cork, 
and throughout the South of Ireland generally. His reputation 
for legal ability and stainless integrity won for him the pro 
fessional confidence of a numerous body of clients, and his 
sound judgment was constantly invoked by many religious and 
charitable institutions. Mr. O Connell took a deep interest in 
the progress and welfare of the profession, of which he may 
truly be said to have been an ornament. For many years he 
was a member of the Council of the Incorporated Law Society 
of Ireland, and was elected by his colleagues to the position of 
Vice-President. Mr. O Connell s remains were interred in 
Glasnevin beneath a beautiful monumental cross, in the Circle 
surrounding the Liberator s grand resting place 

The Very Rev. Father Bennett, D.D., O.C.C., died on 
2nd November, 1897, a ^ trie Carmelite College, Terenure, Co. 
Dublin, and his interment took place at Glasnevin three days 
later. This saintly and venerable father of the Carmelite 
Order had arrived at the patriarchal age of 96 years. He was 
born in 1803, at Aries, in the Queen s County, and when he 
grew up he entered religion in the Carmelite Convent, Dublin. 
Having passed through the usual Novitiate, he entered the 
University of Louvain. Endowed with great talents, he went 
through a most distinguished course, and obtained the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity. Returning to Ireland, he laboured in 
cessantly for the welfare of his Order. Archbishop Murray, 
who ordained him priest, asked him to unite with the celebrated 
Father Hand, Dr. Colgan, O.C.C., and Dr. Woodlock, in found 
ing the great Missionary College of All Hallows. Here he after 
wards occupied the Chair of Dogmatic Theology, and some of 
the most distinguished Bishops in foreign missions passed 
through his class, and remember with gratitude the zeal, 



212 HISTORY OF THE 

learning and amiability of Dr. Bennett. At the Synod of 
Thurles, held in 1850, Cardinal Cullen selected Dr. Bennett as 
his theologian in the weighty matters which came before that 
distinguished assembly of Bishops. In the meantime, he was 
labouring late and early amongst the faithful in the Carmelite 
Church in Dublin. In appreciation of his labours and energy 
in building up the Order of Carmel in Ireland, the Father- 
General in Rome appointed him to a high post in the Irish 
Province. His devotion and zeal in the ministry of the Church 
never flagged from the date of his ordination. He celebrated 
his first Mass in the Convent at North William Street. He 
established a Novitiate for the Order in Ireland, and founded 
the Carmelite Academy, first in Jervis Street and afterwards 
in Dominick Street. He also established the College at 
Terenure. When Dr. Woodlock, the President of All Hallows, 
was named Rector of the Catholic University, Dr. Bennett 
succeeded him as President ; still remaining Provincial of the 
Carmelite Order, from 1852 to 1863. Under these mul 
titudinous labours his grand constitution at length broke 
down, and finally when the weight of four score years pressed 
heavily upon him, he retired to Terenure College. In his last 
illness he was frequently visited by many distinguished pre 
lates and priests, including the Most Rev. Dr. Woodlock, who 
gave him the Papal Benediction shortly before he expired. 
Father Bennett died on the Feast of All Souls, and his remains 
are interred in the plot belonging to the Carmelite Community 
in Glasnevin Cemetery. 

Mr. John Hooper for many years a prominent figure in 
literary circles, and who had filled a large space in Irish 
National politics was laid to rest in Glasnevin on 23rd Nov 
ember, 1897. In Mr. Hooper journalism lost a distinguished 
member. At the time of his death he was editor of the Evening 
Telegraph. He began his career on the Cork Herald, and later 
on joined the staff of the Freeman s Journal, being its Parlia 
mentary correspondent for a considerable time. In 1885, Mr. 
Hooper, under the auspices of Mr. Parnell, entered the House 
of Commons as Member for South-East Cork. 

On yth January, 1898, Mr. Hugh Tarpey s remains were 
brought to Glasnevin for interment. He had died four days 
previously at the age of 77 years. He was at one time an 
active and well-known figure in the municipal and public life of 
the city of Dublin. He was a member of the Corporation 
from 1861 until 1886. His colleagues elevated him to the posi- 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 213 

tion of Lord Mayor in the years 1877-78, when he displayed 
the high business capacity he undoubtedly possessed. Mr. 
Tarpey, during his mayoralty, entertained Mr. Gladstone 
when Prime Minister, who, on this occasion, was presented 
with the freedom of this city. In the second year of Alder 
man Tarpey s tenure of the mayoralty, the British Association 
held their meeting in Dublin, when they were hospitably re 
ceived at the Mansion House. 

The Society of Jesus lost a distinguished member in the 
late Father John Norton, who died on 23rd March, 1898, in 
his 77th year. Father Norton came of a well-known Dublin 
family, and was born in 1821. He passed his schooldays at 
Stonyhurst, and entered the Jesuit Novitiate in 1838. Having 
spent some years in Belgium and England, he was sent to 
Malta, and afterwards to Calcutta. On his return to Ireland, 
he went to Clongowes, and, later on, he was stationed at 
Belvedere College in Dublin, whence the scene of his labours 
was changed to Havana, in Cuba. But for many years before 
his death Father Norton s chief work was at St. Francis 
Xavier s, Gardiner Street, the beautiful church of the Jesuit 
Fathers in Dublin. Father Norton s energy and vitality were 
so remarkable that the fatal termination of his brief illness 
came as a painful shock to his many friends. He is laid to 
rest in Glasnevin. 

Owing to a shocking accident by fire, Mrs. Delia Parnell 
met her death at Avondale, Co. Wicklow, on the 27th March, 
1898. She was the mother of Charles Stewart Parnell, and 
her remains were interred in Glasnevin in the same grave with 
her famous son. This venerable lady was in her 83rd year, and 
was a very remarkable woman in many ways. Mrs. Parnell was 
the daughter of Admiral Stewart, a hero of the American Navy, 
a sturdy sailor who was popularly known as "Old Ironsides." 

On 2nd April, 1898, the funeral of a distinguished Jesuit 
Father took place at Glasnevin. The Rev. John Gaffney, S.J., 
died in his 85th year at Milltown Park, Co. Dublin. For 
nearly forty years of his life he had been working with the com 
munity at Gardiner Street, Dublin. He was a missioner, too, 
and there are few dioceses in Ireland in which he did not labour 
often and successfully. As preacher and confessor, and kindly 
friend and adviser, he was one of the most loved and reverenced 
in the Jesuit Church. The schools of St. Francis Xavier at 
one time better known as " Father Gaffney s Schools " will long 
preserve the memory of this venerable priest. 



214 HISTORY OF THE 

The Community of the Jesuit Fathers in Dublin sustained 
another loss in the death of Rev. Thomas Kelly, who was 
called to his reward on 2oth April, 1898, in his 6gth year. He 
was born in Dublin in 1829. Having received his education 
first at the old Jesuit day-school in Hardwicke Street, he com 
pleted his studies at Clongowes. He entered the Novitiate of 
his Order at Dole, afterwards joining that at Avignon, whence, 
in the troubled days of 48, the Jesuit Fathers were expelled, 
and he had to fly to England. After a course of theology in 
St. Beuno s, North Wales, and at Laval, he was ordained in 
Maynooth in 1859. He succeeded his brother, Father Edward 
Kelly, as Rector of the Jesuit College in Limerick, in which 
position he remained for eight years, during which he built 
the beautiful church of the Sacred Heart. Father Kelly 
passed the latter years of his life at Gardiner Street, where he 
laboured till his death. 

Ireland lost a most distinguished son in Sir John T. Gilbert, 
who was called away quite suddenly on the 23rd May, 1898. 
Sir John Gilbert had reached his 68th year, having been born in 
Dublin in 1829. His first public appointment was as Secretary 
of the Record Office in Ireland, a position which he held until it 
was abolished in 1875. By command of her Majesty the Queen 
he edited " Fac-similes of National Manuscripts of Ireland." Gil 
bert was also editor of a series of publications entitled " Historic 
Literature of Ireland," and of the collection of "Chronicles and 
Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland." He received the 
gold medal of the Royal Irish Academy for his antiquarian 
labours, and more particularly for his " History of the City of 
Dublin"; and as honorary Librarian of the Academy for a 
lengthy period, he gave a great impetus to Celtic studies by the 
publication of many of the most important manuscripts in the 
Irish language. The principal published works of Sir John 
Gilbert are : " History of the City of Dublin," 3 vols., 8vo., 
1854-1859; "History of the Viceroys of Ireland from 1172- 
1509"; "Historical and Municipal Documents of Ireland, 
A. D. 1172-1320"; "National Manuscripts of Ireland," " His 
tory of Affairs in Ireland, 1641-52"; "History of the Irish 
Confederation and the War in Ireland, 1641-43"; various 
Treatises on the History and Literature of Great Britain and 
Ireland, published by the Royal Commission on Historical 
Manuscripts; "The Chartulary of the Cistercian Abbey of St. 
Mary, near Dublin"; "The Chartulary of Dunbrody Abbey" ; 
"Register of the Abbey of St. Thomas, Dublin"; "Calendar 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 215 

of Ancient Records of Dublin," and Documents Relating to 
Ireland, 1795-1804." This brilliant and cultured writer was 
laid to rest in Glasnevin on 26th May, 1898, and his grave will 
be found in the Chapel Circle. 

On the nth June, 1898, the remains of an eminent and 
venerable Dublin physician were interred in Glasnevin. The 
late Dr. Thomas FitzPatrick paid the last debt of nature on 
the gth of that month, at his house, 31 Lower Baggot Street, 
having attained the great age of 91 years. By his death the 
doyen of the medical profession in Ireland passed away. Dr. 
FitzPatrick was a man of much force of character, despite 
his very quiet and unostentatious life. He came to Dublin 
from Trim, when only fourteen, and was apprenticed to Mr. 
Justin Kearnes, of William Street, whose niece he afterwards 
married, and subsequently became a student at the Meath 
Hospital, where he worked hard under Graves and Stokes, 
acquiring considerable distinction, and carrying off the prizes 
of the time. He went later to Edinburgh, and graduated in its 
University. About 1831 Dr. FitzPatrick commenced practice 
in Dublin, and in spite of many difficulties he steadily fought his 
way to a front rank in his profession. All the honours that 
every medical society in Dublin could offer were readily be 
stowed on him, including the honorary Fellowship of the 
Royal College of Physicians in Ireland. Dr. FitzPatrick s 
eldest surviving son is Sir Denis FitzPatrick, late Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Punjab, and now a member of the Indian 
Council in London. Another son is the Very Rev. Monsignor 
FitzPatrick, the esteemed Parish Priest of Rathgar, County 
Dublin. His eldest son was a member of the Vincentian 
Order, and died many years ago. Dr. FitzPatrick s younger 
brother the famous Abbot of Mount Melleray died in 1893. 
Dr. F. will be long and gratefully remembered in connection 
with the establishment of St. Vincent s Private Lunatic Asy 
lum for ladies, of which great good work he was the originator. 
This institution is situated at Fairview, Co. Dublin, and is 
now the most useful and successful Catholic Asylum in Ireland. 

On 2oth June, 1898, Mr. Edward Fottrell, J.P., died, after 
a very brief illness, at Mullranney, Co. Mayo, where he had 
just arrived for the benefit of his health. His remains were 
brought to Glasnevin, where they were interred on the 23rd 
of the same month. Mr. Fottrell had reached the ripe age of 
78 years, and had long held a prominent and honoured position 
in mercantile life in Dublin. For close on a quarter of a cen- 



2l6 HISTORY OF THE 

tury he was Chairman of the Dublin United Gas Company, 
and also filled for a great many years the office of Chairman of 
the Rathmines Township Commissioners, as well as acting as 
member of several other public bodies. For a considerable 
period Mr. Fottrell had a seat at the Board of the Catholic 
Cemeteries Committee, where his loss was much felt. His 
kindly disposition through life gained for him a host of friends, 
and the rectitude and courtesy which marked all his dealings, 
were universally recognised. 

The Viceregal Court in Dublin was cast into mourning at 
the commencement of 1899, by the death, on the 2nd January, 
of the Hon. Mrs. Vincent Corbett, which sad event occurred at 
the Viceroy s Lodge in Phcenix Park. Mrs. Corbett was the 
youngest daughter of Lord Alington, and sister to Viscountess 
Chelsea. She was seized with serious illness the day after her 
arrival in Dublin, and although every medical aid was at 
hand, she passed away. The remains of this young lady were 
brought from the Viceregal Lodge to the church of the Jesuit 
Fathers in Gardiner Street, where a requiem Mass was cele 
brated in the presence of the Lord Lieutenant and Lady 
Cadogan, and their immediate relatives and entourage, as well as 
most of the other prominent personages in Dublin. At the con 
clusion of the service, the remains were conveyed to Glasnevin 
Cemetery, where the interment took place on 5th January, 1899. 
The Hon. Mrs. Corbett was a convert to the Catholic Church. 

The death of Dr. Michael Austin Boyd, on 6th March, 1899, 
came with a shock upon the medical profession and the public 
alike. Dr. Boyd began practice in Kingstown, where his 
sterling qualities and intrinsic merits gained him a large and 
remunerative connection. On the establishment of St. Michael s 
Hospital in that township he was selected as chief of its sur 
gical staff, and by the good work which he did amongst the 
sick poor of that important district, as well as by the value of 
his contributions to medical literature, his fame rapidly ex 
tended. In 1882 he was appointed unanimously as one of the 
physicians to the premier hospital of Ireland the Mater 
Misericordiae, where his skilful treatment was in constant 
requisition up to the time of his untimely death. During those 
years no man ever devoted himself to the interests of the 
afflicted under his charge with more signal utility, more un 
tiring zeal, greater personal kindliness and charity, and more 
complete selt-abnegation than Dr. M. A. Boyd. In addition to 
his eminence in his profession, Dr. Boyd attained much dis- 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 217 

tinction in the artistic world of Dublin, where he frequently 
exhibited his exquisite works at the Exhibition of Water 
Colours in Molesworth Street. At the time of his death Dr. 
Boyd was in the prime of life, and it was in the hunting field 
he contracted a chill which quickly developed into acute pneu 
monia. His funeral to Glasnevin on gth March was a re 
markable demonstration of the esteem in which he was held 
both by the members of his own profession and by the general 
public. What made the occasion sadder was the fact that 
Dr. Boyd was accompanied to the grave by the remains of his 
devoted mother, an estimable lady, whose strength did not 
withstand the shock of her son s death, and she passed away 
within a few hours. 

The announcement of the death of Mr. William Hague, 
F.R.I. A. I., on March 22nd, 1899, was received with general 
regret throughout Ireland. Mr. Hague was one of the ablest 
members of the Architectural profession in this country, and 
designed very many of the most important religious and secular 
edifices in Dublin and in the provinces. His remains were 
brought to Glasnevin for interment. 

On the I4th of March, 1899, while riding " Dunlough " in 
the Meath Hunt Cup, at Navan races, Mr. Leonard Sheil, a 
well-known and most popular gentleman, was badly thrown, 
and received shocking injuries. He lingered until the 23rd, 
and, although attended by the most skilful doctors, he gradually 
grew weaker, and passed away. Mr. Sheil had formerly quali 
fied for the Solicitors profession, but relinquished its practice, 
being more attracted by the vigorous pursuits of hunting and 
the training of racers. An immense following of friends 
attended the funeral of this popular young sportsman to the 
beautiful necropolis at Glasnevin on the 25th of March, 1899. 

On the 25th April, 1899, a famous Irish wit passed away in 
the person of Dr. Thomas Nedley. At the ripe age of 80 years 
he died at his residence, 4 Cavendish Row, Dublin, having 
been in failing health for a considerable time. During his 
illness he had been constantly attended with skill and devotion 
by Dr. Conway Dwyer, one of his colleagues on the Board of 
the Catholic Cemeteries Committee. Dr. Nedley s loss will 
long be keenly felt by his numerous friends, and his death has 
created a void in the Cemeteries Committee which it will not 
be easy to fill. This genial man was highly gifted, and with 
him the last or one of the last of the old school of Irish wits 
and raconteurs may be said to have disappeared. He wa$ a 



2l8 MlSTOkY OF THE 

contemporary and intimate friend of the late Father Healy, of 
Bray, who was still more remarkable as a brilliant wit. Mr. 
T. P. O Connor, M.P., thus notices an almost national loss: 
Everybody in Dublin knew, and there were few that did not 
love, Tom Nedley. There was an infectious good humour, a 
rollicking air, a heart in the man, that made everyone take to him 
at once. Tall, well-proportioned, with fine, deep brown eyes, 
always full of merriment, and not incapable of emotion, he was a 
splendid specimen of an Irish gentleman. He had almost to the 
end a beautiful voice, a keen appreciation of Irish humour, a 
ready wit, mimetic powers, and a quick ear, so that he could give 
you the thirty-two different accents of the thirty-two counties of 
Ireland. In his stories, which rolled out in a perennial stream, 
you saw and heard all the characters as in a play with many 
players, so well was he able to make his characters live by his 
wonderful powers. He lived till nearly his eightieth year. Peace 
to his ashes, kind, brilliant fellow that he was." His remains 
rest in a plot adjoining that in which the ashes of his life-long 
friend, Father Healy, repose. He was buried at Glasnevin 
Cemetery, 2jth April, 1899. 

The Very Rev. William Walsh, D.D., O.S.A., Prior of 
St. Augustine and John s, died at the convent of his Order in 
Thomas Street, Dublin, on 2nd April, 1899. This venerable 
priest was in his 8oth year, and had ministered for the greater 
part of his ecclesiastical life in the place where he passed away, 
and it can truly be said of him that his long years of zeal and 
devotion, spent in the service of religion and charity, have pro 
duced abundant fruit. The new church of St. Augustine, 
Thomas Street which replaced the old "John s Lane chapel" 
is an edifice which for architectural beauty and extent of 
accommodation, takes high rank amongst the most important 
of the city churches. Its erection is chiefly due to the com 
bined energies of Father Walsh and another eminent member 
of the Order, Father Crean, subsequently Bishop of Sandhurst. 
The Rev. Prior Walsh s remains were brought to Glasnevin for 
interment on the 5th of April, 1899. 

The announcement of the death of Dr. Joseph E. Kenny, 
Coroner for the City of Dublin, ex-M.P., which occurred on 
the gth April, 1900, came as a great shock. Although his 
constitution was far from being robust, his death was most 
unexpected. Dr. Kenny, who attained the age of 55, was born 
at Chapelizod. He was for several years one of the medical 
officers of the North Dublin Union, in which capacity he 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 



219 




DOCTOR THOMAS NEDLEY, M.D. 



220 HISTORY OF THE 

rendered valuable service to the sick poor in the small-pox 
hospital and convalescent home of the Union ; and the 
Guardians, in testimony of those services, put on record 
" their deep sense of the courage, spirit, and ability with 
which he discharged the trying and perilous duties committed 
to him in time of public alarm and danger, of the kindliness and 
skill which marked his conduct towards the patients under his 
charge, and of the readiness which he at all times displayed in 
co-operating with the Board and the Officers of the Union in 
alleviating the evils caused by the lamentable epidemic." In 
1885 he was elected Nationalist Member of Parliament for 
South Cork, and represented that constituency with credit 
to himself and benefit to the district until Parliament was 
dissolved. He for some years subsequently represented in the 
Imperial Parliament the College Green division, City of 
Dublin. He was an unflinching supporter of Mr. Charles S. 
Parnell s policy, and at the time of the "split" in the National 
ranks, continued an ardent follower and supporter of his chief. 
Mr. Parnell often stayed with Dr. Kenny, and his house in 
Rutland Square, it is stated, was the rendezvous of the 
principal men of the party, where they met in conclave and 
made plans when confronted with critical issues. Dr. Kenny 
was on the executive of every Nationalist movement of his 
day. He was imprisoned for nearly six months in Kilmainham 
as a " suspect " during the Chief Secretaryship of the Right 
Hon. Mr. Forster. He subscribed large sums of money 
towards the maintenance of the National struggle, while to 
the poor he was always a thoughtful and liberal benefactor. 
He was one of the founders and directors of the Independent 
Newspapers Company, and continued to be on its Board up 
to the time of his death. He was a man of refinement and 
culture, and took a deep interest in literary and artistic move 
ments. He was elected Coroner for the City of Dublin in 
1892, which post he filled up to the period of his death. The 
plot in Glasnevin Cemetery selected for his burial is situated 
in the same section as that of the late Mr. Parnell s. Although 
plots are not disposed of in that section, yet on application 
being made by the friends of Dr. Kenny, the Cemeteries 
Committee in this instance allowed the site to be secured. His 
burial took place on the nth April, 1900. 

On the 2nd July, 1900, Sir Thomas Farrell, President of the 
Royal Hibernian Academy, died at his residence Redesdale, 
Stillorgan, County Dublin, aged 70 years. The Irish Times in its 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 221 

issue of the 5th July, in noticing the death of this distinguished 
Irishman, stated that: "The public will learn with sincere 
regret of the death of the distinguished President of the Royal 
Hibernian Academy. Sir Thomas Farrell was the successor 
of Foley and Hogan ; he maintained after these pre-eminent 
masters the best traditions of the Irish School of Sculpture. His 
career was a most remarkable one. Himself one of the most 
retiring of men, he was urged by the sheer pressure of his talent 
into the highest position that an Irish artist can nil in his own 
land. He adorned his native city with some of its most ex 
quisite artistic ornaments, which will stand for all time in our 
midst as monuments as much of the great genius who carved 
them, as of the famous personages whom they represent. There 
was one unique feature in the accomplishments of Farrell he 
was equally successful in relief, in bust work, and in statuary. 
Born in Dublin in 1829, he was the son of Terence Farrell, a 
Royal Hibernian academician, and reared in an atmosphere 
impregnated with artistic instincts, his brothers and he followed 
the profession of their father. His early days were passed in a 
time when the fine arts were more generously patronised in 
Ireland ; and shortly after he became an exhibitor, his work came 
into great request. One of the first works that made him promi 
nent was the magnificent bas-relief representing the last charge 
at Waterloo, designed for the Wellington Column in the Phoenix 
Park. His work was accepted after public competition, and has 
always been regarded as the glory of the great national memorial 
to the greatest of Irish soldiers. The action of the horses as 
they seem to spring from the bronze, the energy of the men, are a 
revelation in relief work. He was never afterwards seen to more 
magnificent advantage, and in a city rich in artistic treasures 
there is nothing that claims more of the admiration of the lovers 
of the fine arts. Another of his early works, which clearly re 
vealed uncommon genius, was his memorial to Captain Boyd in 
the Cathedral of St. Patrick, the figure of which with its spirit of 
athleticism and courage can compete with anything of the kind 
with which we are familiar. His statue of Smith O Brien 
standing at the head of D Olier Streec is another piece of sculp 
ture which places him high in the foremost ranks of his splendid 
profession. The statue is one of the glories of the city, worthy 
of its contiguity to the masterpieces of Foley. The figures of Sir 
John Gray in Sackville Street, of Cardinal Cullen in the Pro- 
Cathedral, of Archbishop MacHale in the Square at Tuam, of 
Bishop Butler in Limerick, the seated figures of Sir Alexander 



222 



HISTORY OF THE 









* 




SIR THOMAS FARRELL, LATE PRESIDENT, ROYAL HIBERNIAN 
ACADEMY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 223 

M Donald in front of the Central Model Schools, and of 
Lord Ardilaun in St. Stephen s Green Park, the full-length 
figure of Lord O Hagan and of Richard Lalor Sheil in the 
hall of the Four Courts, Sir Benjamin Lee Guinness facing 
Patrick s Close, Sir Robert Stewart, the famous Irish musician, 
in Leinster Lawn, Denis Florence M Carthy, the poet, at 
Blackrock College, are a few of the immortal works which he 
chiselled. He was also the creator of the statues of Archbishop 
Murray in the Pro-Cathedral, Marlborough Street, of the Pro 
testant Archbishop Whately, and of the famous Irish actor, 
Barry Sullivan, in Glasnevin Cemetery. Amongst his other 
works may be mentioned the imposing statue of the Queen, at 
the entrance of the Guildhall in Derry, which was unveiled 
some twelve or fifteen months ago by the Lord Lieutenant. 
His recumbent figure of Cardinal MacCabe over that illustrious 
churchman s grave at Glasnevin is one of the finest of its 
kind to be seen almost anywhere, and the busts from his 
studio, which must have been extraordinarily numerous, in 
clude those of Mr. Thomas Sexton in the City Hall, Sir 
John Gray in Glasnevin Cemetery, Sir Patrick Keenan at 
Tyrone House, and Father Reffe at Blackrock College. On the 
death of Sir Thomas Jones in 1893, Farrell was elected Presi 
dent of the Royal Hibernian Academy, and the following year 
he received the honour of knighthood. In that exalted position 
he made strenuous efforts to secure an increased Government 
grant for instruction in draughtsmanship and painting in 
Ireland, but he failed to obtain more than the small sum of 
300 annually voted. Sir Thomas was a constant exhibitor 
at the Royal Hibernian Academy. At the last Exhibition he 
showed a beautiful gilt group representing Rescue, but he was 
less successful in the imaginative than in the realistic branches 
of his art. The chief and characteristic features of his best work 
were strength of outline, command over facial expression, and 
grace of pose. In private life Sir Thomas was essentially a 
retiring man. Diffident to an extraordinary degree, he never 
seemed satisfied with his finished work, and it is related that on 
one occasion at the moment of the unveiling of one of his most 
important pieces he rushed from the building lest the result of 
his labours might appear to him unsatisfactory. He never 
married, and may be said to have lived entirely with his work 
and his art, but by those who knew him intimately he was 
greatly beloved. His memory will remain green amongst 
Irishmen so long as his masterpieces stand in our midst, and 



224 



HISTORY OF THE 




JAMES SPRING S MONUMENT AND VAULT, GLASNEVIN CEMETERY 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 225 

his achievements will ever remain in conjunction with those 
of Foley and Hogan, Barry and Maclise, as a magnificent de 
monstration of the artistic instinct and capacity of Irishmen." 
The burial (which was private) of Sir Thomas Farrell took 
place at Glasnevin Cemetery on the 4th July, 1900. 

The Cemeteries Committee, in the death of Mr. James 
Spring, which occurred on the i2th July, 1900, lost one of its 
most respected and useful members. He had been a member 
of the Board for nearly a quarter of a century. 

On the 1 4th July, 1900, the Cemeteries Committee lost 
another of its most valued and highly respected members by 
the death of the Right Hon. Joseph M. Meade, P.C., LL.D., 
When it became known in the city that Alderman Meade was 
dead, expressions of sorrow were heard on all sides, as he had 
by his many good qualities, his genial disposition, his noble 
and upright character, endeared himself to all with whom he 
came in contact. In politics, Alderman Meade was always a 
strong Nationalist, and backed up his opinions in a most liberal 
manner with his purse. In the year 1890, when the division 
took place in the Nationalist ranks, the deceased alderman 
ranged himself on the side of Mr. Parnell, and during the time 
of the " split " was a most earnest supporter of the principles 
of Parnellism. 

Alderman Meade, who was born in 1839, was a son of the 
late Michael Meade, Esq., J.P., of St. Michael s, Merrion, and 
Great Brunswick Street, Dublin. In due course Alderman 
Meade entered his father s building works, and after acquiring 
a thorough knowledge of the trade, was taken into partnership 
in the firm. On the death of his father, the deceased alderman 
succeeded to the business, and under his management it grew 
to huge dimensions, some idea of which may be gathered from 
the fact that, on an average, 900 men were kept employed 
there. 

Several exceedingly large contracts have been carried out 
by the firm since it came under the control of the late Alder 
man notably all the masonry work in connection with the 
Loop Line railway, Bray Catholic church, numerous Artisans 
dwellings, the beautiful Convent of the Little Sisters of the 
Poor, South Circular Road, and Guinness s printing works ; 
while the firm were also contractors to the Board of Works, 
and at the time of his death was engaged in erecting, amongst 
other buildings, the new Novitiate at Marino. What a busy 
man Alderman Meade was may be gathered from the fact that, 

Q 



HISTORY OF THE 



RIGHT HON. JOSEPH M. MEADE, P.C., LL.D, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 227 

in addition to presiding so ably over the flourishing firm in Bruns 
wick Street, he was Chairman of the Hibernian Bank; Director 
of Messrs. Bolands (Limited), the Ocean Accident Guarantee 
Corporation, the Liverpool, London, and Globe Insurance 
Company ; Member of the Privy Council ; Alderman of the 
Corporation, and as such, a member of the Finances and Leases 
and Rates Committees, and a member of the Port and Docks 
Board. He was elected to the Corporation on the 25th Nov 
ember, 1886, as Alderman of the Trinity Ward, in succession 
to the late Sir James William Mackey. 

In 1889 he was selected to fill the office of High Sheriff, 
and did so with honour to himself, and credit to the city. In 
1891 he was appointed Lord Mayor, and so successful were 
his efforts in the interests of the citizens, that he was re-elected 
for the year 1892. During the Tercentenary celebrations of 
Trinity College, he had bestowed on him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. 

In 1 893 he was appointed a Privy Councillor. In 1 892 he was 
co-opted a member of the Loan Fund Board, where his advice 
was always sought on account of his great business capacity. 
He was one of the trustees of the Cemeteries. His remains 
were interred in Glasnevin Cemetery on lyth July, 1900. 



228 



HISTORY OF THE 




N 



CATHOLIC CEMETERIES OFFICES, 4 RUTLAND SQUARE 

/ - _ . . 7*1 






DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 22Q 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE tenure of the old offices on Ormond Quay, in which space 
was very limited, having only a few years to run, and accom 
modation being urgently needed for the records which had 
accumulated to an immense extent, as well as more room being 
required for the augmented office staff consequent on the great 
increase in the number of forms and records necessarily kept, 
the Cemeteries Committee secured, through the successful 
negociations of one of its members, Mr. Lombard, the present 
extensive offices, 4 Rutland Square, possession of which was 
obtained on the i6th October, 1894. They were opened for the 
transaction of business on ist July, 1895. The fine paid for the 
premises, which are now subject only to a nominal rent of 
11 1 8s. 2d., is noted in a preceding chapter. The structural 
alterations which included the building of two spacious strong 
rooms in the basement office fittings, new sewers, etc., painting, 
and architect s fees, amounted to i, 797 175. 4d. The building 
portion of the work was executed by Mr. Kiernan, and the office 
fittings by the old and well-known firm of T. & C. Martin all 
the work being carried out according to the plans and specifica 
tions, and under the supervision of Mr. William H. Byrne, 
Architect. 

Necessity having arisen for additional ground for ordinary 
non-vested burials, the Committee, since acquiring their new 
offices, have, as already stated, extinguished the heavy annual 
rent which was payable out of the lands of " Violet Hill," by 
purchasing the fee thereof, which, with law costs, reached the 
sum of ^"4,304 145. 7d. Of this amount ^"4,250 was obtained 
as a loan from one of the Dublin Banks ; but the sum has by 
instalments been reduced, and only ^3,250 now remains unpaid. 
In addition, a head-rent of \\ 2s. 8d., which was payable 
out of the same lands was, as before noted, extinguished by 
payment of ^"566 195. od. 

These lands are now being enclosed by a boundary wall the 
contract entered into for its construction exceeding ^"3,600. 
The large payments now specified do not, however, terminate 
the expenditure necessary to make this ground suitable for the 
purposes of burial. For the laying-out of the grounds, when 
enclosed, by walks, planting, levelling its uneven surface, and 



2 3 



HISTORY OF THE 




DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 




232 HISTORY OF THE 

constructing the necessary sewers for its drainage will, it is 
estimated, involve a further outlay of several thousand pounds. 
When these lands are enclosed the extent or area of Glasnevin 
Cemetery will comprise 86A. IR. 2 IP. statute. 

During the period (from 1895 to Z 9oo) that these large 
payments were being made, the Committee were only able to 
make grants out of their revenue to Charitable Educational 
Institutions to the amount of ^"271. 

In the year 1899, at the hearing, before a Parliamentary 
Committee, of a Bill promoted by the Dublin Corporation for 
extending the boundaries of the city so as to include Glasnevin 
Cemetery and the lands adjoining owned by the Board the 
Committee endeavoured to have either the premises excluded, 
or a clause inserted giving differential rating as regards the 
Cemetery and those lands. The proceedings involved an ex 
penditure of some five or six hundred pounds in Parliamentary 
costs. 

With the view to improve the surface of a portion of the 
ground of Glasnevin Cemetery, the Cemeteries Committee 
obtained, in 1899, from Mr. Ramsay, nurseryman and landscape 
gardener, a report on the subject. Immediately on receiving 
this report, a number of extra workmen were employed for a 
lengthened period under the supervision of Mr. Ramsay, to 
carry out the works recommended by him which included the 
removal of several trees, extensive pruning of others, levelling 
of the ground, spreading over the surface fine clay, extensive 
sodding of borders of walks, and placing upright several hundreds 
of headstones which, for want of foundation walls, had fallen out 
of the perpendicular. These improvements were carried on 
for nearly fifteen months at an outlay of about 1,100, and 
added much to the pleasing appearance of the grounds of the 
Cemetery. 

In i895~ 96 the Glasnevin Cemetery, which for a period of 
nearly fifty years previously had not been liable for rates, was now 
sought, by an aggressive movement of the Valuation Department, to 
be assessed. Some time before inquiries having been made by the 
North Dublin Union Guardians, as to why the Cemetery had been 
exempted, a letter of the late Sir John B. Greene, Commissioner of 
Valuation, dated February igth, 1892, addressed to the Clerk of the 
North Dublin Union, and published in the newspapers, stated : 
" The exemption of this property (Glasnevin Cemetery) has now 
existed for the last forty years, and it is probable that the exemption 
in the first instance, arose from the fact that the profits arising from 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMTERIES 233 

burials were stated to be devoted to charitable purposes, and that 
there was no private or personal emolument arising therefrom. In 
this view of the case, Glasnevin Cemetery is different from Mount 
Jerome, the profits of which go directly to the shareholders." 

The action taken by the Valuation Department came on for 
hearing before the Right Honorable the Recorder, who, after the 
case was argued by Counsel, gave a decision adverse to the conten 
tion of the Cemeteries Committee, which was that the Glasnevin 
Cemetery should, as a Charitable Institution, still continue to 
be exempted from assessment. From the decision given in the 
Recorder s Court, the Cemeteries Committee brought an appeal 
"In the High Court of Justice in Ireland, Queen s Bench Division." 
The case was argued in that Court with great ability by Counsel 
representing respectively, the Cemeteries Committee and the Valua 
tion Department and on 8th June, 1896, the majority of the Court, 
consisting of Mr. Justice Holmes and Mr. Justice Johnston, 
delivered judgment, which substantially confirmed the adverse 
decision of the Recorder. The other member of the Court, the 
Honorable Mr. Justice William O Brien, however, dissented, and 
in a judgment of great ability, legal acumen and lucidity, recorded 
his opinion that Glasnevin Cemetery should be, as it had been for 
the last fifty years, exempted from assessment. 

The result of this adverse decision has been that a new impost 
or tax of considerably over ^400 annually, has been permanently 
fixed upon the Cemetery, and the Charitable Educational Institu 
tions in and near the city of Dublin deprived of this large amount, 
which otherwise would find its way towards their maintenance and 
support. 




Q gRIEN A ARDS) PRINTERS DUBLIN. 



234 



HISTORY OF THE 



Dublin Catholic Cemeteries. 



In the year of this work being published, the following 
gentlemen constituted the COMMITTEE : 

Trustees : 
His GRACE THE MOST REV. WILLIAM J. WALSH, 

Archbishop of Dublin. 
JOSEPH R. O REILLY, ESQ, D.L. 
CHARLES KENNEDY, ESQ., J.P. 

Committee : 



CHARLES KENNEDY, ESQ., J.P. 
JAMES F. LOMBARD, ESQ., J.P. 
EDWARD J. STAPLETON, ESQ. 
DAVID COFFEY, ESQ., J.P. 
JOSEPH WOODLOCK, ESQ. 
WILLIAM J. MARTIN, ESQ., 

M.D. 
JOSEPH N. LENTAIGNE, ESQ., 

B.L., J.P. 

WILLIAM KELLY, ESQ., J.P. 
SIR JOHN E. BARRY, KNT. 
MOST REV. DR. DONNELLY, 

Bishop of Canea. 
JOSEPH R. O REILLY, ESQ., 

D.L. 



WILLIAM H. O KELLY, ESQ. 
VERY REV. MILES CANON 

McMANUS, P.P. 

WILLIAM R. J. MOLLOY, ESQ., 

M.R.I.A., J.P. 

CORNELIUS PELLY, ESQ., J.P. 
AMBROSE PLUNKETT, ESQ. 

CONWAY DWYER, ESQ., M.D. 

THOMAS O DONNELL, ESQ. 
VALENTINE B. DILLON, ESQ. 
JOHN E. FOTTRELL, ESQ. 
RICHARD P. CARTON, ESQ., 

Q.C., County Court Judge. 
ALDERMAN WM. F. COTTON, 

J.P. 



VERY REV. TIMOTHY CANON GORMAN, P.P. 

Secretary : 

C. COYLE. 

Offices : 
4 RUTLAND SQUARE, E. ? DUBLIN, 



DUBLIN CATHOLIC CEMETERIES 235 



Chief Clerk : 

C. D. COYLE. 

Clerk : 
EDWARD CONRY. 

Junior Clerks : 

PATRICK QUINN. THOMAS KELLY. 

ERNEST BAYLEY. 

Book-keeper and Accountant : 
JOSEPH H. WOODWORTH. 



Chaplain : 
VERY REV. HENRY MURPHY, P.P. 

Acting -Chaplain : 
REV. FRANCIS J. COFFEY, C.C. 

Superintendent : 

JOHN O CONNELL. 

Sexton : 
JAMES W. GEARY. 

A ssistant to Superintendent ; 
JOHN W. NOWLAN. 

Clerk : 
DANIEL O CONNELL. 



Chaplain : 
VERY REV. PHILIP CANON CARBERRY, P.P. 

A cting- Chaplain : 
REV. S. J EGAN, C.C, 




^ Marfiutry Chapel 
&.B. firw&pal Enlrancf. with Oflic&s and> 
C Etubr*/ Extranet,, Sextcnj Lcttyt & 
NOTE. Boundaries of Sectwnx shewn, tiuut 




SCALE. 



APPENDIX. 



CONSTITUTION OF COMMITTEE. 

THE Catholic Cemeteries Committee (formed in 1828) was constituted, " The 
Dublin Cemeteries Committee " or Governing Body, under an Act of Parlia 
ment (9 & 10 Viet., cap. 361), which authorises them to fill up any vacancies 
occurring on the Board by co-option of new members. 

ABSTRACT OF BYE- LAWS. 

In pursuance of the powers conferred by Act of Parliament, the Governing 
Body have made Bye- Laws which include, amongst other matters, the following 
regulations : 

GENERAL MEETINGS. 

General Meetings shall be held on the first Wednesday of every month, 
when the minutes of the last previous General Meeting, and of all subsequent 
meetings of Rotation and other Sub -Committees, shall be read, approved, 
rejected, or modified as at such General Meeting shall be thought fit ; that a 
statement of accounts shall be read, as well as reports from the officers, and 
orders given thereon ; all correspondence dealt with, and motions of which seven 
days previous notice shall have been given. Rules as regards resolutions or 
amendments are laid down ; any member absent for fifteen minutes after the 
time fixed for a meeting of the Rotation or Visiting Committees, incurs a 
penalty, and no member can be included in the Visiting Committee who had 
not attended the General Meeting for the month. 

ROTATION SUB-COMMITTEE MEETINGS. 

The members of this Committee meet each Tuesday and each Friday, and the 
work to be done by the Committee is, to examine and check the cash accounts ; 
to compare them with the Bank book, and to see that all moneys received had 
been lodged ; to examine and check the several weekly and other accounts 
of petty charges, rent, taxes, salaries and wages, and order payments if 
approved all such orders to be entered in the "Transaction Book." The 
chairman at such meeting is required to sign, and the secretary to counter 
sign drafts for payment of the several sums ordered, the particulars of which 
are entered on the block, and initialed by the chairman. The various books 
and records of the Cemetery are to be examined, and seen that all have been 
written up to current date. The Committee have also to inquire into com 
plaints (if any) against persons in their employment, and cause an entry of the 
complaint to be made in the " Transaction Book " ; to-examine, and if desirable 

1 



Appendix 

approve all plans for monuments proposed to be erected, together with the 
proposed inscription which the applicant wishes to have cut. Some members 
of the Committee must also see, by a careful system of checking, thTt al 
1^^^ SSf?? 7 T ^ , Re ister as regards the names of persons 
reris trar n mh ete "es, recording the letter and figure, sexton s number, 

other nLtT ^ ^ plaCe - ? former &b de of P erson interre d, and 
n^ticulars m accordance with the forms. It may be added that all 
" proceedings and resolutions are entered by the Secretary during 
nd authenticated before the close of the proceedings by the 
-rman ; and same subsequently neatly copied into the 
and read aloud by the secretary, and comoared bv fhe 



VISITING SUB-COMMITTEE MEETINGS. 

thmf erS ^ f thiS Sub - C mmittee et three times in the mouth-twice 
m the month for the purpose of visiting Glasnevin Cemetery, and once for the 

mTfth V1Sltm H g . lden BridgC Cemetery - Thdr duty * walk over and 
cofnerrS 6 ^H S^* ^^ ? C " ^ * c a " d r ^ ort U P all matters 
affa.V of th" r the t ft ! cers "^Ployed there, and the general management of the 
affairs of the Cemeteries, and whatever may be necessary to keep the same in 
thorough and complete repair ; as well as upon all other matters referred to 

RULES AS TO BURIALS, ETC. 

The following rules as regards burials at Glasnevin and Golden Bridge 
Cemeteries were framed by its Governing Body under powers given by a special 
Act of Parliament, many years ago, and their insertion here is for the perusal 
and guidance only of persons who require such information :- 

REGULATIONS AS TO THE CEMETERIES. 
The Sacrifice of the Mass is offered up every day in the Mortuary chapel 

repose of the souls of those 



The Cemeteries are open daily from 6 o clock, a.m , to 6 o clock, p m in 
the summer months ; and from 7 o clock, a.m., to sunset in the winter months 
S CirCUmStanCC - m ** Cemeteries 



The offices, 4 Rutland Square, Dublin, are open on each week-day from 
o clock am a m " ^ 5 cl ck P m> : n Sunda y s , from 10.15 to 11.15 

Admission to the O Connell crypt in Glasnevin Cemetery is, on application 
at the gate, a lowed from 12 o clock noon, to 4 o clock, p.m. each day in the 
summer months, and from 12 to 3 o clock in the winter months 

All persons employed in the Cemeteries are strictly prohibited from solicit 
ing or receiving gratuities of any kind, under penalty of dismissal 

At Glasnevin Cemetery a book is provided, in which may be entered anv 
observation on the condition of the Cemetery, the management of funerals or 
otherwise, for the inspection of the Visiting Committee of the Governing Body 
at its periodical attendance. 

Any demonstrations within the Cemeteries by processions, the use of the 
emblems, or otherwise, of a party or political character, or the playing of band* 
or the use of music other than the chanting by the clergy of the Service of the 



Appendix iii. 

Church, are prohibited in the strictest manner. The superintendent is bound, 
in the event of his having reason to anticipate any such demonstrations being 
intended, or on any such being attempted, to take such steps to prevent any 
breach of this Bye-law, as in his discretion he shall deem necessary. 

INTERMENTS. 

The arrangements as to interments can be made only at the offices, No. 4 
Rutland Square. 

Twenty-four hours notice at the least must be given at the offices previous 
to having a grave opened in either of the Cemeteries. With the view of pre 
venting one funeral interfering with another, or the like inconvenience, the 
time fixed for arrival of the funeral at the Cemetery should be punctually 
observed. 

In the event of the requisite notice of an intended interment not having been 
given, and arrangements made within the specified time, an extra charge is 
imposed. In no case, except extreme urgency, is interment allowed on the 
day of issue of an order for burial. 

No interment is permitted to take place in either of the Cemeteries after 
12 o clock (noon), except of bodies brought from or beyond a distance of seven 
miles from the General Post Office, Dublin. Interments may be made at a later 
time under pressure of circumstances, authorisation having been previously 
obtained Irom the secretary therefor ; the circumstances to be reported to next 
Rotation Committee. 

This regulation shall not apply to the immediate burial of subjects of 
Coroner s inquest, Health Committee, or like cases of urgent necessity, on pro 
duction of the proper orders from theojfic*s, 4 Rutland Square. In all other cases 
of arrival alter hour fixed, the coffin shall be deposited in the mortuary vault, 
a fee being charged therefor. 

All charges and fees must be paid at the offices of the Governing Body, 
before the order be issued. No money can be received for any purposes 
connected with the Cemeteries (save fees for use of mortuary house), except at 
the offices, and by the proper officer. No money can be received without a 
receipt on the proper form being at once given for the amount paid, and an 
entry of such payment being immediately made in the book, which is the usual 
record for such transactions. 

No coffin is admitted into the Cemeteries unless the usual order for inter 
ment, having been paid for and obtained at the office, be lodged with the 
sexton at the Cemetery. 

No interment order is issued until every particular required by the form 
of such book be given by the applicant, and duly entered and authenticated. 

When an application is made for burial in a grave or plot granted in per 
petuity, the grant shall be produced, or its non-production be satisfactorily 
accounted for by statutable declaration, made, if possible, by the grantee, if 
living, or by some member of his or her family. The mere production of the 
grant, except by the grantee or his or her legal representative or devisee, or 
some person duly authorised, to the satisfaction of the Governing Body, shall 
not be sufficient to authorise the opening of the ground allotted therein for 
interment ; nor except by his or her immediate authority, can any person be 
interred therein, save and except immediate members of the grantee s family, 
as shall come within the instructions in that behalf of the Governing Body to 
their officers. When peculiar and urgent circumstances arise, the secretary 
may dispense with these regulations, the particulars to be reported to the next 
Rotation Committee. Should the secretary, in the exercise of his judgment, be 



Appendix 

e 1 w t . 1 ( iat ^ ecircum ] stanCeS d not warrant his usj ng this authority to 
Dispense with these regulations, the remains may be placed in the mortuary 

unHMho ^1 thech Ce f th e applicant) in a grave paid for in the usual course 
voted S1 n y nCXt R tatl0n Com ittee ^ ^d on the question in- 

re-opened are to be excavated to the top of the last coffin 



te ssf/oT 6 ma ^ e f C " rC n P er P etuit y b y purchase within one week from 
ie i.s&ue of an order to inter therein ; after the lapse of that time or tl 
first interment the right to make further interment insuch grave forfeited 

^ SamC famH a] " 



Any ground in which non-vested interments have taken place shall not 
again be re-opened for new interments, for a period of seven years at the least 
XCP ^ Ot alrCad bur ed therein ^ then not, save 



1 h eren ten not, save 

plots the charge of winch does not exceed 4 , unless the perpetu tv be 
secured immediately previous to second interment 

box dw^fTTT f graVCS by i Pknting is Strictl y confined t the use of 
box dwarf shrubs, flower roots and seeds, for decorative purposes 

the offi graVC T n be drCSSed I" 6 J ther f the Cemeterie * ^thout an order from 
Committee^ 1 " ^^ ^ "^ CXCCpt by Workmen Plyed by the 
Grants of ownership must be produced at the office when arrangements are 
being made for having head-walls or other foundations built, or its non- 
production be accounted for to the satisfaction of the Committee. 

REGULATIONS FOR RELIGIOUS SERVICES. 

Subject to the following regulations, the burial service will be read in the 
lake hiZpkcT % the haplain f the CemCtery r by a priest de P u "d to 

To preserve order, and to consult the decorum befitting the solemn occasion 
the fo lowing rule must be strictly observed r-Funerals shall enter the mortua y 
chapel through the door opening in the porch, and shall leave by the door on 
on the east or on the west, as the one or the other may be contiguous to the 
section of the Cemetery in which the interment is to take place 

[f from the disease causing death, or the condition of the coffin or the 
interval between the death and the funeral, or from any other cause, there be 
in the judgment of the superintendent of the Cemetery, good reason to appre 
hend infection or contagion or occurrences not becoming the reverence due 
o the sacred edifice, he shall have power to prevent the remains being taken 
into the chapel ;-unless by written instructions from the office it be certified to 
him that all necessary precautions have been taken against contagion etc 

I he remains of any person who shall have died beyond three days previous 
to the day of interment, or of any disease or disorder of an infectious or con 
tagious nature, shall not be admitted to the chapel, unless the same be enclosed 
ma coffin of lead or zinc; or unless special permission be applied for before 
12 o clock on the day preceding the funeral, and be granted : the written per 
mission to be handed to the superintendent. Prayers, however will be said 
by the chaplain in the porch of the chapel, over such cases as it may be found 
impracticable, from the above circumstances, to have brought into the chapel 

1 he remains of any persons to be interred in ground purchased in perpetuity 
shall, subject to the foregoing rules, be taken into the chapel for a separate 
service to be performed over the remains of such person ; provided the funeral 



Appendix v. 

arrive at the Cemetery before 1 1 o clock, and that notice of such funeral be 
given at the office on the day preceding the funeral, in order that same may be 
duly recorded, and communicated to the chaplain. If the time for arrival at the 
Cemetery as fixed and recorded be not punctually observed the privilege cannot 
be guaranteed or insisted upon. 

Prayers shall be recited in the chapel over the remains of all other persons 
to be interred in the Cemetery, in such order and subject to such arrangements 
as the superintendent shall, according to the circumstances of the occasion, 
find it advisable to make at the time, but subject always to the approval and 
sanction of the chaplain or his representative in attendance. 

Usually all religious services are performed by the priest representing the 
chaplain of the Cemetery ; if, however, the family of the deceased, or other 
friend having the arrangement of the funeral, should wish that the service in 
the chapel should be performed by a priest other than the chaplain, notice of 
such wish shall be given at the office on the day preceding the funeral. But 
every such arrangement must be submitted to the chaplain, and receive his 
approbation. 

In case the chaplain or his representative attending, should find it not 
convenient to accompany any funeral from the mortuary chapel to the grave, 
there shall be no obligation upon him so to do ; but he may sanction the last 
prayers being recited there by any priest attending the funeral, and who is 
personally known to him. 

The chapel shall not he occupied by any service, ceremonial, sermon, 
instruction, or any function connected with a funeral for a longer period than 
twenty minutes, unless by written permission issued at the office. 

Any person directed by the superintendent or any of his assistants to leave 
the chapel, shall not be permitted to remain therein. 

No person shall be permitted to stand upon the kneeling or sitting chairs 
in the chapel. 

THE ARRANGEMENT OF FUNERALS AT NEW ENTRANCE. 

The hearse or bier may proceed to the chapel door ; other carriages shall 
not be permitted to pass beyond the gate. The hearse, and persons attending 
each funeral shall enter the grounds only by the entrance gate at the Dublin 
side of the Cemetery and adjoining the offices, and shall leave the Cemetery 
by the gate at the Finglas side of the same. Drivers shall at once take their 
carriages within the enclosures at the side of the road opposite the entrance 
gates, the horses heads being turned towards the City, and shall leave the 
enclosures by the space left open in same, facing the horses heads. 

All arrangements connected with funerals within the Cemetery grounds 
shall be entirely under the control, and subject to the direction of the superin 
tendent, save herein as provided for. 

For the tolling of the bell during a funeral a charge shall be made of five 
shillings. 

All business connected with funerals on their arrival at the Cemetery, or 
interments about to take place therein, shall be transacted in the porch con 
nected with the offices at the entrance gate. 

The Angelus shall be tolled on the chapel bell daily at the usual hours, 



VI. 



Appendix 



MONUMENTS. 



All plans for intended monuments proposed to be erected must be ac 
companied by an application in writing for permission to erect same, when 
executed, from the owner for the time being of the plot on which it is proposed 
1 ; et " accom P an y in such a letter to be signed by the 



Ucnt 



e 



a 



Duplicate sketches or tracings drawn, in ink, to inch scale from the plan of 
very intended monument or tombstone or railings proposed to be erected in the 
Cemeteries, together with the proposed inscription, also in duplicate, or any 
addition to any existing inscription must be furnished on tracing-paper to the 
secretary for approval by the Board. 

No headstone or other monument when completed can be admitted into the 
Cemeteries until the Committee s certificate of approval be obtained for its 
erection, and be lodged with the sexton at the Cemetery in which the headstone 
or monument is to be placed. 

In no case can any headstone or other monument erected in the Cemeteries 
be cleaned up, painted, or otherwise renovated, unless and until the Committee s 
certificate of permission authorising the execution of the work be previously 
obtained and lodged with the sexton. Application for such permission must in 
all cases be made direct to the Committee by the owners of the plots. 

All sketches of proposed monuments and copies of inscriptions, etc intended 
to be submitted to the Committee for the week, must be lodged at the offices 
not later than Tuesday. 

No monument or headstone can be erected without having suitable founda- 
A ?,"! -IT t0 L su PP rt same " Ever y headstone must be set in a socket-stone 
All building beneath the surface is executed by the workmen employed by the 
Committee, under the supervision of the superintendent. The cost of all such 
work must be defrayed by the parties erecting the monument. 

The pedestal and die of all large and heavy monuments, or of any monument 
to be erected m the Cemeteries of Glasnevin or Golden Bridge, shall be in the 
solid. No die or pedestal of brickwork, or other light material, veneered or 
encased by or with slabs, etc., shall be permitted to be erected, in any case or 
under any pretext. 

No stonework forming portion of any monument proposed to be erected in 
the Cemeteries having water-lines or other like defects, shall be allowed to be 
erected. 

No stone erection proposed to be erected in the Cemeteries shall be 
painted. 

In any case where the superintendent is not thoroughly satisfied with the 
manner in which a monument, or its appendages, etc. , has been erected, executed 
and finished, he shall not endorse the permit entitling the person erectile or 
monument > etc " to be ^funded the deposit made on monumental 



No person in the employment shall interfere in or suggest the engagement 
of any sculptors, stonecutters, or others, to erect or repair monuments, or to 
do any other work in the Cemetery. 

All work of stone-masons and others employed in the erection of monu 
ments shall be admitted into the Cemeteries before 9 o clock, a.m., or from 
i o clock, p.m., to hour of closing, and not at any other time 



Appendix vii. 



CHARGES FOR THE PURCHASE OF GROUND 
IN PERPETUITY. 

GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 

ft. ft. 

New Chapel Section, ... 8 by 4 ^32 to 48 

Do. do. Special and Select sites,sub- 
ject to Committee s permission and such 
conditions as they in each case may 
make ,, ^6410/100 

South Section 

Third, second, and first border plots ... ,, 7 ros. to i 5 

Fourth border plots ... ,. ... ,, 4. o o 

Others interiorly situated . . ... 8 ,, 2 200 

Dublin Section 

% / Second and first border plots ... ... 8 ,, 4 10 to ,15 

^ Third plots from Mf., inclusive ... ... ,, 4 o o 

** ) Others interiorly situated .. ... 8, ,2 200 

^ ] First border plots ... ... ... 8 ,, 4 500 

S Second border plots ... ... ... ,, 400 

^ \Othersinteriorlysituated .. ... 8 ,, 2 200 

Garden Section (vicinity of O Connell Circle) 

First border plots ... ... ... 8 ,, 4 1500 

Other first border plots .. ... ... ,, 500 

Second border plots ... .. ... ,, 400 

Third border plots ... ... ... ,, 250 

Other plots interiorly situated ... ... 8, ,2 0150 

Chapel Circle, Curran s Square, and O Connell 

Circle ... 8 4 15 10/32 

St. Brigid s Section 

c First border plots ... ... ... 8 ,, 4 ^48 o o 

Second border and all other plots ... ,, ^32 o o 

Second and first border plots ... ... ,, ^15 to ^32 

. Third border and all other plots ... ,, 6 o o 

Sen Second and First border plots ... ... ,, /ioto/15 

"S. Third border plots , ,, ^"400 

Q \Otherplotsinteriorlysituated ... ... 8 ,, 2 200 

Uniformity in the arrangements, as determined, being imperative, no plot 
less than 8 ft. by 6 ft. can be disposed of in certain favoured localities, as speci 
fied in detailed list exhibited in the offices. 

Additional ground to plot of 8 ft. by 4 ft., according to situation, at the 
price stated for same in detailed General List of Charges in the offices. 

GOLDENBRIDGE CEMETERY. 

ft. ft. 

Chapel Circle .. ... ... ... ... 8 by 4 7 10 o 

Barrack Section ... ... .. ... ... ,, 400 

Canal Section ... ... ... ... ... ,, 300 



,0 

3 . 
C .c 



viii. Appendix 

VAULTS. GLASNEVIN CEMETERY. 



O Connell Tower, 

O Connell Circle, 
Along Walks 


{Furnished with solid cast metal "l 
doors, iron gates, with lattice 
wire, locks, etc., and the sur 
face of vaults completed with 
best Wicklow granite cut 
stone, 


ft. ft. 
8 by 8 

1 

8 ,, 6 




200 

15 



45 


o 

o 

* 
o 


o 




o 


Do. 


... 


8 4 


33 




o 



Bodies proposed to be placed in vaults purchased since July, 1871, must 
be enclosed in leaden coffins. 

FEES FOR INTERMENT. 

To be paid in addition to charges for vaults or ground, etc., purchased in 

perpetuity. 

Each Adult. Child under 
12 years. 

In New Chapel Section s. d. s. d. 

Private vault ... ... ... ... 3 200 

St. Brigid s Section South and first borders 

in Dublin division of such section ... ... 300 200 

O Connell Circle Ground (also Chapel Circle, 

Golden Bridge) 200 i 10 o 

Curran s Square, Chapel Circle ... . ... I 10 o I o o 

South Section 

First, second, and third border plots ... I 10 o I o o 

Fourth and all others o 17 6 o 10 o 

In Dublin Section 

> \ First and second border plots I 10 o I o o 

I First border plots (also Barrack section) ... 126 0126 

|j \ Second and all other plots (also in Canal 

W ( Section) .. .. o 17 6 o 10 o 

Garden Section (Vicinity of O Connell Circle) 

First border plots I 10 o i o o 

Other first border plots 126 o 12 6 

Second border plots o 17 6 o 10 o 

All others o 12 6 066 

St. Brigid s Section 

Second borders in Dublin division, and first 

and second borders in Garden division ... I 10 o I o o 

All others in Dublin division ... ... 126 0126 

Third and all others in Garden division . . 126 0126 

Common graves in Old Section, non- vested 

ground .. ... ... ... o 15 o 080 

Common graves in New Section, non-vested 

ground ... ... ... ... . 126 o 12 6 

POOR - Each Body. 

Government and other Public Institutions, Coro- s. d. 

ner s cases ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 050 

(except in latter case, when interred by 
members of deceased s family, then the 
charge is only is. 6d.} 
The general public ... ... ... . - o i 6 



o 



Appendix 

BUILDING FOUNDATIONS, ETC. 

Headwall at a plot, 8 ft. by 2 ft.... \ / From i 10 to i 15 

Do. do. 8 ft. by 4ft.... | Brick , 3 o to 3 10 

Two piers, 9 in. by 9 in. or , I I to I 7 

Do. 9 in. by 14 in. ... 1 Concrete , i 7 to I 10 

Do. 9 in. by 18 in. ... j ( , 2 8 to 3 o 1 a 

Wall of 9-inch brick or concrete round ... , 9 o to 12 o/ < 
Other building executed according to dimensions of plot, situation, etc. 

OTHER FIXED CHARGES. 

Searching Records r f j 

First year or any part thereof ... ... o i o 

Each subsequent year or part thereof ... 006 

Certificate of Extract from Records (exclusive of stamp ) o c o 

Entry of Grant in Register of Grants, each ... ... ... 026 

Noting Transfer of Grant (if allowed) ... ... ... 026 

Railing Permission Fee ... ... ... I 10 o 

Renovation Certificate ... ... ... oio 

For use of Mortuary Chapel ... ... ... Nil 

Dressing Order, each grave ... ... o i o 

Turfing a grave, on the privilege of selection being exercised ... 026 
Removal of a body Double Interment Fee. 

Depositing a body in Mortuary house I each A(lult 5 

( each Child 026 

Do- do. Poor ... each Body o i 6 

Late Notice of intended Interment 

When Fee is over 1 2s. 6d. ... ... ... ... 050 

When under 1 2s. 6d. ... ... ... 026 

Opening Grave Permission Order (if allowed by Committee), to 

satisfy persons that body is in grave The usual Adult Inter 
ment Fee for each grave opened. 

Each coffin exceeding 2 ft. in width Double Interment Fee of Adult. 
Opening a grave or plot to see if it be practicable to excavate 

same Adult Interment Fee therein. 

For each coffin temporarily raised out of grave ... o 10 o 

For excavating a grave ... ... ... ... i o o 

For excavating a plot ... ... ... i 10 o 

For each Special Certificate ... ... ... " 050 

For each correction in an entry in any Record ... 050 

Opening a grave or exhuming a body for Coroner s inquest, or 

for purpose of identification ... ... ... ... l IO o 

Filling a Declaration re old Perpetuity ground, 6d. ; otherwise, is. 

Certificate of approval of additional Inscription ... 026 

Certificate of approval of Tablet, Headstone, or other stone 

erection not exceeding 3 ft. in height ... ... ... 050 

Certificate of approval of Headstone, Monument, or other stone 

erection exceeding 3 ft, but not exceeding 6 ft. in height ... o 10 o 
Certificate of approval of Headstone, Monument, or other stone 

erection exceeding 6 ft., but not exceeding 10 ft. in height ... i o o 
Certificate of approval of Headstone, Monument, or other stone 

erection exceeding ten feet in height .. ... 200 



X. 



Appendix 



OTHER CEMETERIES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. 

THEIR ARRANGEMENTS AND FEATURES. 
. The Secretary, at the instance of the Committee, has at variot 

SS^aKSSSSSSSs*: 



IRELAND. Dublin the Mount Jerome, and Deans Grange Belfast 

Catholic) : > 



ENGLAND. -Near London-Highgate, Kensal Green General (All Souls ) 



Flaybnck ; Sheffield-Brightside (Burngreave), Bierlow, and (he Genera? 



The advantages and privileges given by the Dublin Catholic Cem 
Committee to the public for interment are not, so far as wa asce a n e d 

^ 1Uy " l ^ CqUal CXtent ^ a f the ub 



This may be best illustrated by an analysis of the lowest charges nade for 
" 1 C0mm n r r l Und f th Ihich are as 



London. 
Highgate and Nunhead ... ... A ^ s> Children. 

Kensal Green (All Souls ) " ^ ^ 

Kensal Green (St. Mary s) ... 

Brompton 

jO.9. 26s 

The Necropolis, Woking ... ... ... 2O9 

South Metroplitan, Norwood *^ S 

... A.2S* 3O9 

Great Northern, Colney Hatch : 

No. I. Consecrated ground, us. ; Unconsecrated ground, IQJ 
No - 2 - 20s. ; ,, tf l8j 

Children under 10 years of age, two-thirds of the above charges. 
Birmingham. Borough Cemetery, Witton, 8s. and 6s., i6s. and 13 j. 
MancAesfer.-Ard wick adults, 21 s., children, 8s. and i2s. 6d., still-born, 
2s. 6d. ; Philips Park (Corporation) adults, i:s., non-resident ratepayers] 
l8s. children, 8s., non-resident ratepayers, 10.9. 

SAeffieM.Brightside (Burngreave) Bierlow, 10.9., i8j., and 23 j. ; under 
12 years, 8j., 12s., and 14^. The General, from 8s. to 15^ 



Appendix xi. 

Liverpool Anfield Park 7 years and upwards, gs. ; under 7 years, 6s. ; 
still-born, 2s. 6d. Non-parishioners 7 years and upwards, 15^. ; under 7 years, 
10.?. ; still-born, 3*. Toxteth Park Adults, gs. 6d. ; under 7 years, 7*. 6d. ; 
still-born, 2s. 6d. Common graves restricted to parishioners. 

Birkenhead.\a,y\>nds. > J years and upwards, gs. ; under 7 years, 65-. ; 
still-born, 2s. 6d. ; non-parishioners, 2ls. 

Glasgow. Cathcart Under 6 years, js. ; above 6 and under 12 years, 
ios. ; above 12 years, i6s. Jeanfield (under 5 years) 6s. 6d. ; above 6 and 
under 12 years, 9->. 6d. ; above 12 years, I2s. 6d. Sighthill Under 6 years, 
gs. ; above 6 and under 1 2 years, I2s. ; above 12 years, 135. Dalbeth Coffin 
under 3 ft. long, 5-r. ; above 3 ft. and under 4 ft. 6 in., 75. ; above 4 ft. 6 in., icw. 

Edinburgh The Grange on week days varies from 12?. to 5 ios., and on 
Sundays from i$s. to 6 13*. 

Belfast. The Borough, and Miltown (Roman Catholic) Adults, 2s. 6d. ; 
children, 2s. 6(/. 

Londonderry.^^ Borough Adults, 2s. ; children, 2s. 

Cor&.St. Finbar s Adults, 2s. ; children, 2s. 6d. 

/}/,////. Mount Jerome Adults, ios. ; children, $s. Deans Grange- 
Adult or Child from inside the Union, $s. each ; from outside the Union, 2os. 
each. While the charges at Glasnevin are Adults, is. 6d. ; children, is. 6d. 
When brought from Government, or other public Institutions, and Coroner s 
cases, each $s., except in the latter case, when interred by members of deceased s 
family, then the charge is only is. 6d. 



LONDON CEMETERIES. 

THE WEST OF LONDON AND WESTMINSTER CEMETERY, 
BROMPTON. 

This Cemetery is under the control of the Executive, and the Department 
by which it is managed is the Board of Health or Board of Works. 

There are two entrances, both unpretentious in character. It contains a 
block of buildings, comprising a church, offices, chaplain s dressing apartments, 
lavatories, etc. ; in it are several colonnades covering extensive ranges of cata 
combs. These occupy a very considerable space about midway in the grounds. 

The area of the Cemetery is forty acres statute, ten of which are occupied 
by buildings and walks. The annual interments average about 4,000, two- 
thirds of which are made in the " common " ground. In it, as in the Sheffield 
Cemeteries, only two classes of interment ground are provided, namely, 
" common " and perpetuity. In the latter, the space in which graves are laid 
out are of 6J ft. long, by 2^ ft. wide ; and for brick graves, 9 ft. long by 4 ft. 
wide, and of 9 tt. long by 6 ft. wide. In the " common" ground the space 
appropriated for a grave is 6i ft. long by 2| ft. wide, the space usually opened 
being about 6 ft. by 2 ft. ; and when first opened the grave is, as a rule, sunk 
to 8, and sometimes 9 ft.. According to the system only one body is interred 
in each grave, which is not reopened for a period of ten years, except for a 
member of the same family. 



xii. Appendix 

" Common " graves, which had been buried in ten years previously, have 
been reopened for new interments ; the depth excavated to, apparently, being 
about 7 ft. ; and although the sidebanks of those graves, to which a space of 
6k ft. long by 2| ft. wide is allocated, were braced up by several lengths of 
strong, broad pieces of wood, much of the clay at either sides sometimes rolls 
in during the excavation ; but in no instance is any portion of a coffin in any 
of the adjoining graves exposed to view. It seems that in reopening such 
graves the practice is not to make the excavation further than the top of the 
uppermost or last coffin deposited therein. Over these graves headstones were 
formerly permitted to be erected, although the perpetuity had not been secured, 
but latterly this privilege has been altogether withdrawn. 

THE LONDON NECROPOLIS, OR WOKING CEMETERY, SURREY. 

This Cemetery, owned by the London Necropolis Company, exceeds in 
extent all other similar institutions in the three kingdoms ; but in this respect 
only, can it be said to surpass, if indeed to equal, the majority of the other 
Cemeteries visited. The area of the ground enclosed exceeds 500 acres, and is 
only a portion of 2,000 acres purchased by the Company under Parliamentary 
powers. 

The grounds form a vast expanse of gently undulating ground, carpeted 
with heather. Some portions of it are planted with evergreen trees and shrubs, 
and the soil being apparently a dry, yellow sand, would lead to the conclusion 
that its selection as the site for a Cemetery, apart from its great distance 
twenty-eight miles from the metropolis, was not unsuitable. Large allotments 
of ground have been appropriated in it for use by the different religious denomi 
nations, also to various parishes, societies, and communities. The portion 
allotted to the Protestants has been consecrated, and that appropriated to the 
Catholics has been blessed by the respective ecclesiastical authorities ; but the 
other portions of the grounds are not consecrated. 

Funeral parties from London are conveyed by railway. The Company 
undertake all incidental arrangements, including statuary work when required. 
At the offices, 2 Lancaster Place, Strand, patterns of coffins, etc., are kept for 
the convenience of persons who desire to have the Company supply all funeral 
requisites ; and at Westminster Bridge a private station has been built, at which 
the friends of the deceased may assemble. Special trains are devoted to their 
service, and not more than forty minutes are occupied in reaching the Necropolis 
station from London. Arrived at the Cemetery, the train runs on a single line 
of rails into the grounds, and deposits passengers, etc., at the doors of the 
different chapels, which are built in a line with one another, but at a con 
siderable distance apart. Maps of the different sections have been made. 

There are two restaurants in the grounds under the management of the 
Company, who forbid the sale of spirituous liquors ; one with several suitable 
waiting-rooms attached, is built contiguous to each of the chapels. 



LIVERPOOL AND BIRKENHEAD CEMETERIES. 

The most important Cemeteries at Liverpool appear to be Anfield Park 
and Toxteth Park. The former is situated about three miles east of Liverpool ; 
it was established in the sixties, at a cost, including erection of offices, officers 
residences, three churches, and enclosure of grounds, of about ; 160,000. Its 



Appendix xiii. 

area comprises 120 acres, 7 f which are enclosed for the purposes of the 
Cemetery. It was founded by the parish of Liverpool, the purchase money 
being, by the sanction of the Treasury, raised by loan on the security of the 
rates, and the principal and interest payable by annual instalments, spread over 
a period of fifty or sixty years. There are three churches one for Catholics, 
and two for Protestant Dissenters erected on the grounds, at a cost of about 
,3,000 each. It is managed by a Committee of nine gentlemen, elected by 
the ratepayers. 

There are three classes of interment ground in this Cemetery : 

1st. Ground in which interments are not allowed, except the perpetuity 

thereof has been secured. 

2nd. Ground in which, on part payment of the perpetuity, interment is 
permitted ; the twelve months subsequent being allowed for com 
pleting the purchase. 

3rd. Ground in which "common" interments take place. The graves 
for this class of burials are 8 ft. long by 4 feet wide, in the centre of 
which the space opened is about 6.4 ft. by 2 ft 3 in., and to a depth 
of 10 ft. Only one coffin is put into each grave every day ; but the 
grave is not closed until filled by interments. 

The size of the graves in the perpetuity ground is 8 ft. by 4 ft., and 9 ft. 
by 4 ft. 6 in. The number interred annually in this Cemetery averages about 
6,000. 

Toxteth Park Cemetery, situated about three miles south of Liverpool, was 
similarly established, and managed on the same plan as Anfield Park. Its area 
is about forty- five statute acres, and the amount expended in purchase of the 
grounds, in enclosing them, and in other incidental outlay, was ^"60,000. The 
average annual number of interments made in it is about 3,500, two-thirds of 
which take place in the " common " ground. There are similar classes of 
interment ground as at Anfield Park, but the "common" ground is now 
restricted to the burial of parishioners. 

Birkenhead Cemetery comprises about sixteen statute acres, and was opened 
about the same time, at a cost, including the erection of three churches, of 
,40,000. There are three classes of interment ground here also. 



SHEFFIELD CEMETERIES. 

The Brightside, Bierlow, was established about the year 1863. It was 
founded and is managed similarly to those at Liverpool It comprises twenty - 
seven statute acres. Graves in perpetuity ground when opened first are, as a 
rule, it was stated, excavated to n ft. In the " common ground" the depth 
to which graves are sunk varies. 

The system upon which the charge for ground or vaults disposed of in per 
petuity is made, seems to be regulated by the amount at which a person s 
premises or dwelling maybe valued for the purposes of the Poor s-rate, whether 
parishioner or non-parishioner ; but in the latter case there must be produced 
"a receipt of the Poor-rate for the house in which the person to be interred 
had died." 

There are two churches erected in this Cemetery one for the Protestant 
Church Establishment, and one for Protestant Dissenting bodies. 

The General Cemetery was established about five years after Glasnevin, 
and is owned by a joint-stock company, who have a special Act of Parliament. 
Graves are laid out in spaces of 7^ ft. long by 3^ ft. wide, in the perpetuity 



Appendix 

ground, and of 7 ft. long by 3^ ft. wide in the "common." About eleven or 
twelve bodies, adults and children, are interred in each "common grave" 
which is never closed until filled with interments. One-fourth of the interments 
made take place in the " common " ground. 

The number of burials made in these two Cemeteries average annually about 
1, 600 respectively. 



EDINBURGH CEMETERIES. 

Of the eight Cemeteries in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh namely, Cal- 
ton, Canongate, Dairy, Echobank, St. Cuthbert s, Warriston, the Dean, and 
the Grange the most important are the two last named. Both seemed to be 
well kept, particularly the Dean Cemetery, which is adorned with a fine col 
lection of full-grown shrubs, and several well- executed monuments, some of high 
merit. 

That Cemetery is about one mile and a half west of Edinburgh, and its 
area twelve and a half statute acres. It is owned by a joint-stock company. 
The number of burials made in it does not exceed four or five a week. It 
would seem that none but the wealthier classes are interred in it, and in ground 
first secured in perpetuity. 

The Grange, or Southern Cemetery, is situated about two miles south of 
the city. It was established in 1846, and is owned by a joint-stock company. 
The annual average number of interments made there is about 850, nearly three- 
fourths of which are "common." Here, like as in the Dalbeth Cemetery, 
Glasgow, there are only two classes of interment ground, " common " and per 
petuity. Persons of different religions are interred in it, and a portion ot the 
ground is appropriated to each denomination, Catholics, Protestants, and 
Nonconformists. The Catholic portion has been blessed, and that allocated to 
the Protestants consecrated, by the respective ecclesiastical authorities. 

As to the space allotted to the graves, the space opened for " common " 
interments is 6 ft. long by 2^ ft. wide, and only to a depth of 6 ft., and yet it 
was stated that five or six bodies are put into each such opening. It seems 
that one body only is interred in each of those graves every day, after which 
it is filled up, and opened the next day, and another body deposited in it, when 
it is again closed until the following day, and thus on until the grave is filled 
with interments. 

With respect to charges, the system followed in charging for interments in 
perpetuity ground in all the Scotch Cemeteries visited, is as follows : The 
charge for interments is regulated according to the " style of funeral," and the 
number of carriages in attendance, as well as the section in which the burial 
takes place. The charge for interments of this class in some Cemeteries is 
from 2 2s. to 6 6s., when the age is over twelve years ; when over six and 
under twelve years, the charge made ranges from i IDS. to 5 $s., and in 
other sections when the age is under six years, and if the coffin is carried under 
the arm, the charge for interment varies from i to ^4 4^. 



GLASGOW CEMETERIES. 

Of the Glasgow Cemeteries, the Necropolis has some advantages over the 
others. Ht is longer established, the site it occupies is imposing, and it con 
tains monuments superior in general as to design and execution, and apparently 
of more lasting material. Its area is between forty and forty-five statute acres, 



Appendix xv. 

and it is owned and managed by a body of merchants, designated "The 
Merchants Hall Company," whose available funds have grown, it was stated, 
to a very large amount. The Company have also, it appears, two very 
valuable estates. 

Among the objects of the Company is that of maintaining old, respectable, 
but unsuccessful merchants, by giving them, when incapacitated, a yearly 
stipend during life. Widows Institutions, and others, are also aided, if not 
supported by the Company ; and they have acquired or built a new public hall in 
George s Square, Glasgow, at a cost of over 57,000. Large bequests and 
donations are frequently left to the Company, and it was stated, that in recent 
times, a gentleman died leaving them a bequest of 20,000. 

The Necropolis stands on a height of about 250 feet in the centre of the city, 
and is entirely composed of what is termed whinstone rock. The plan upon which 
the vaults and other places for burial have been arranged, next the entrance to 
the Cemetery, partakes somewhat of a series of terraces, rising one over another, 
the vaults and plots for burial being constructed in spaces made by blasting or 
quarrying. 

The ground, although kept in becoming order, has not the pleasing effect 
which is produced by the presence of judiciously planted shrubs or evergreens. 
It appears that the smoke and gases arising from the numerous factories in the 
city, are fatal to their growth. The net amount available out of the receipts 
from the Glasgow Necropolis, for the year 1877, was about 2,500. Ap 
parently none but the wealthier classes are interred there. 

Jeanfield comprises thirty statute acres ; aud it was stated that the inter 
ments made in it exceed those in any other cemetery at Glasgow. It is owned 
by a joint-stock company. About three roods of the ground are appropriated 
to persons of the Hebrew persuasion, and are enclosed by an iron railing. 

Sighthill is about one mile and a half from Glasgow. It, and the newly- 
established Cathcart Cemetery (four miles from the town), are also owned by 
joint- stock companies. 

St. Peter s Catholic Cemetery (I)albeth), is situated three and a half miles 
south of Glasgow. There are two Cemeteries, one adjoining the other. The 
older one, comprising two acres, has been closed, except to those who had 
acquired perpetuity rights. Extensive convent buildings, occupied by a com 
munity of nuns, stand on part of the ground. The new grounds enclosed 
comprise about twenty acres, ten of which are appropriated for the purposes 
of the Cemetery. Both are under the control and management of the Catholic 
Archbishop of Glasgow, and a Board composed of clerics and lay gentlemen. 
The Cemetery is blessed, and is the only one at Glasgow for the exclusive use 
of Catholics. During the year 1877 there were 3,847 interments made in 
both grounds. 

In all the Glasgow Cemeteries in which ordinary interments take place, 
the ground appropriated for the purpose is apart and distinct from that used 
for better-class interments. 

The Glasgow Cemeteries are not consecrated, with the exception of a 
small portion of Sighthill Cemetery, appropriated for the exclusive use of 
Protestants, and the Dalbeth Catholic Cemetery, which is blessed ; nor is 
there, except at Sighthill (in which a portion of the building used there for an 
office is utilised for reading the burial service at the funerals of Protestants), 
any sacred edifice in any of the Glasgow Cemeteries. 



Appendix 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The soil of the different Cemeteries varies, according to the situation of the 
grounds ; but, excepting in a few instances where the strata is composed of 
rock, that of all appeared fairly adapted for the purposes of a burial-ground. 

In the laying out of the grounds much diversity is apparent in the arrange 
ments of all ; thus, while those of the Grange at Edinburgh are intersected 
with walks, suitable distances apart, which divide the ground into sections 
forming parallelograms, in the Jeanfield, Glasgow, the walks which intersect 
the ground make the compartments (as they are termed) much of an oval 
shape. A considerable portion, too, of the grounds of Anfield Park, Liver 
pool, is occupied by landscape gardening such as having a number of walks 
converging and diverging at several points, and by the intertwining of many 
curved and semi-circular walks. 

Extensive ranges of catacombs for burial, at immense expense, have been 
erected in many of the Cemeteries, particularly in the Grange, Edinburgh ; 
Anfield-park, Liverpool ; and the Brompton, London. 

The Board of Management of each of the Cemeteries established by 
parishes, consists of nine gentlemen elected by the ratepayers ; each of them 
have to be re-elected periodically ; all their meetings are public, at which 
reporters for the press attend. In the Cemeteries at London, founded and 
maintained on joint-stock principles, the Board of Management consists of 
ten Directors, each of whom is paid one guinea for every meeting of the Board 
at which he attends, 

With respect to the ground allotted for " common " interments in some of 
the Cemeteries, notably in the Grange, Edinburgh, Anfield Park, Liverpool, 
and the Brightside (Burngreave), Bierlow, Sheffield, a system has been for 
several years past in operation which appears to have advantages ; in each of 
these Cemeteries the practice is, to make " common " interments in alternate 
ranges of graves in perpetuity ground which is not favourably circumstanced 
the intermediate ranges being utilised for ordinary general burials. The 
advantages arising from the adoption and proper working of the system are, 
that once this class of interments is made, and the ground suitably levelled and 
arranged, the alternate ranges so used, ever afterwards presents a beautiful 
green sward, unbroken by excavations when made intermittently for fresh 
burials, and affords a ready mode of access to perpetuity and other graves in 
he intermediate ranges. The system, where adopted, would effectually pre 
vent the bad effect caused by opening all the graves in every range from time 
to time for burial, and would prevent, too, headstones being erected, in nume 
rous instances, so close to one another, that nothing could pass between them, 
by which an overcrowded appearance is given to the grounds, and an unfa 
vourable impression of the arrangements generally produced. 

In England, a charge, in addition to the interment fee, is imposed in each 
case, whether interment be made in " common " or perpetuity ground, for the 
attendance^ of the clergyman officiating. For each interment made in the 
"common " ground, the charge made thus is 35., and on interment in perpe 
tuity ground it varies sometimes reaching IDS. and more. At St. Finbar s 
(the Corporation) Cemetery, Cork, the charge made for the use of the chapel 
is 5 s. 

The Catholic Cemeteries Committee is the only body (so far as ascertained) 
in the three kingdoms who permit the offices to be opened upon Sundays for 
the transaction of business. 



Appendix 



xvn. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF CHARGES for securing right of Burial in Per 
petuity, in a grave (other than in reserved ground or pet sites) in several 
Cemeteries : 





In Graves in 


In Graves in 




which burial is 


which burial is 


NAME OF CEMETERY 


permitted with 
option of pur 
chase afterwards 


permitted with 
option of pur 
chase afterwards 




CLASS 1 


CLASS 2 


KENSAL GREEN (All Soul s) LONDON 


s. d. 
360 


s. d. 


HIGHGATE, LONDON 


380 




THE LONDON NECROPOLIS, WOKING, SURREY 


2 10 





ST. MARY S CATHOLIC CEMETERY 


550 




SOUTH METROPOLITAN, LOWER NORWOOD 


330 





NECROPOLIS, GLASGOW 


300 


_ 




(Residents 




PHILIPS PARK (Corporation) MANCHESTER 


within city 
200 


Others 
300 




and 


and 




2 10 


3 10 


BIRMINGHAM CITY CEMETERY 


2 2 6 


1 12 


ANFIELD PARK, LIVERPOOL 


2 10 


1 15 


TOXTETH PARK, LIVERPOOL 


2 10 





MOUNT JEROME, DUBLIN 


[326 


* 2 2 6 


* According to time purchased. 


< 4 2 (5 
( 5 2 6 


* 3 2 6 
* 4 2 6 


DEAN S GRANGE, DUBLIN 


3 




* According to District person resides in. 


4 10 

500 







(.600 




GLASNEVIN, DUBLIN 


2 


15 


Offices 4 Rutland Square, E. 







STATEMENT OF CHARGES for Burial in the several Sections (exclusive of in 
reserved ground or pet sites) when first buried in, and at present (1900), 
in Glasnevin Cemetery : 





GARDEN SECTION 


DUBLIN SECTION 


SOUTH SECTION 


ST. BRIDGET S 
SECTION 


POOR GROUND 





Adults 


Chil 
dren 


Adults 


Chil 
dren 


Adults 


Chil 
dren 


Adults 


Chil 
dren 


Adults 


Chil 
dren 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


183? 


12 6 


076 


17 6 


10 














1846 


.. 








17 6 


10 










1839 
















.. 


030 


020 


1878 




.. 










tl 2 6 


12 6 






1900 


*0 12 6 


6 (> 


17 6 


10 


17 6 


10 


1 2 6 


12 6 


016 


016 



* At first burial in, with option of purchase, the charge is Adults, 15s. ; Children, 8s., and 
after the right of burial is secured, the charge is Adults, 12s. 6d. ; Children, 6s. 6d. 

I The drainage of this Section cost a very large amount. Each grave for first burial is 
excavated to !) feet. 



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